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Just a modest student blog. Nothing dubious going on here, we promise.

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The symbol of invention, ingenuity and enlightenment, the light bulb is perhaps a most pivotal invention in the course of human history. The advent of the lamp made it possible to render the dark of night and shed a lambency on the way to the future! Truly, the light bulb is all we could ever ask for. They say 'teach a man to fish and he will not have light but teach a man of the fluorescent lamp and he will have that light!' but in all seriousness let us illuminate the obscure nature of the fluorescent light! Different varieties of the fluorescent light may use cathodes of tungsten that release heat and electrons while being electrically heated itself and this provides the energy needed to produce the 'lighting' effects.As I have said once before in my previous blog about atomic energy levels and their associated light spectra, it was a consummation of this knowledge that we make an effective application of phenomena. A electric current passes through the mercury gas, exciting its electrons and emits high energy light as they descend to ground level. That energetic lights strikes a phosphorescent or fluorescent salt, the white powder inside the glass tube, which emits light itself. A mixture of noble gases which ionize as a result of the heat being generated by the cathodes, allowing sufficient current to excite the gaseous mercury. All these components make for an expensive assembly and their complexities make them a challenge to manufacture which results in a unattractive price. However they are known to be many times more efficient than their incandescent cousins, saving money and electricity in the long term. Fluorescent bulbs are also a environment friendly choice, while containing mercury, the construction of incandescent lamps actually produce more mercury waste. 


As the nature of electricity was investigated into the eighteenth century through static electricity and to a certain extent the triboelectric effect, it was only natural that the discovery of electric charge and capacitance would follow. Independently, three scientists named Ewald Georg von Kleist, Pieter van Musschenbroek and Andreas Cunaeus. A machine of sorts, one that would supply charge through triboelectric electric effect by friction, would transfer the charge to two conducting, metallic foils that act as electrodes, generated a disparity in charge and electric potential. The plates are on the inside and the outside of a glass jar, the glass acting as a semiconductor and because of the electric field, electric potential is created across the glass. This glass would "hold" the charge in a sense. You see, the mystery at the time was the exact nature of electricity. Many believe electricity was some invisible fluid-like thing. Electricity could only be observed from sparks, repulsion and other natural phenomenon so at the time humans were working with an incomplete theory of electricity. However the later two scientists Pieter van Musschenbroek and Andreas Cunaeus identified the mechanism of action that we now know today. The idea is that the inside and outside surfaces of the glass became charged by the foils, equally and oppositely, causing a potential difference across the glass itself as a dielectric. The discovery of capacitance has lead to the advent of a variety of useful modern technologies like computers and circuitry which I hope to investigate at a later time.


The triboelectric effect manifests from frictional contact between materials resulting in contact electrification but why? Why are things like this? Why do we live? Why do we die? But anyways here the things we have to know. People have been using this effect like a play thing, charging objects to repel another or zapping frogs apparently (thank you) and I believe it was quite important to our discovery of electromagnetism, especially in the ancient world. If your childhood was at all interesting, you have tried building some sort of potential difference on your person by sliding around on a rug and feeling the power crackle at your fingertips, jolting some poor door knob or family member. That visible stroke of electricity, the spark, indicates to us that there was some level of discharge and depending on the conductivity of the air, it becomes easier to achieve. So when two materials contact they may make a small amount of chemical bonds where one is more likely to receive a negative charge and the other a positive charge due to the inter-molecular forces at play, this is the triboelectric effect. Now that there is some polarity, potential difference is developed and this discovery has had quite an effect in the advancement of the field of physics. Join me for part two: The Leyden Jar in this series.


You know its just nice to be here, blogging with my physics fellows and learning new things in a great class environment but real talk, before the second quarter closes on all of my fat head, I just wanted to say that I think that these physics blogs are great, an excellent creative opportunity to connect the dots, so to speak, on the physics topics we've learned. However I feel that not everybody is getting enough out of them for their own sake. These blogs while not necessarily throwaways can be taken to their creative limits. This is not English class so I can say "I" and begin sentences with "and"  and not get my knuckles rapped with a two-by-four. Blogging can be very social with all the extra features and comment system and these blogs, while requiring a bit of thought, are not going to be scrutinized by anyone outside of the class room so there is not too much pressure to be meticulously detailed and factual, though it is appreciated. My point is these are fun and I wish I heard about them more. One can talk about science fiction theories or how they think the earth doesn't spin (I'm only joking). These really can be what you make of it in the end.


I was watching this video of a man slapping a molten stream of metal. Let there be no doubt that this fiery stream was beyond glistering, the scathe of flesh and branches, such that man has never seen. Anyways it was bizarre because his hand passed through unscathed, leaving nary a mark. Perplexed, I began to think and when I could not find any bulletproof conclusions I searched the vast corners of cyberspace to discover the existence of what is called the Leidenfrost effect, there before my eyes. In short, when a liquid contacts a surface of far greater heat than its self, the outermost layer of the liquid will boil into naught but a layer of vapor, insulating the whole from heat. The man must have had some sweat or the like on the surface of his skin and when they came in contact with the hot metal the vapor formed a vapor and under the aegis he was not harmed. This phenomenon can be observed when dropping water on a hot pan, they scatter because of this vapor.


Where do elements get their physical properties? Well the short answer is inter-molecular forces and that's really all the time I have to spare before the second quarter. Several inter-molecular forces keep an element at a certain phase of matter. The tenacity of these forces depends a great deal on the circumstances of pressure and temperature but for blog purposes, it is safe to think of these at standard pressure and temperate so it is easily visualized. These so-called inter-molecular forces exist in four main types. The first is dipole-dipole bonding which includes hydrogen bonding. This type entails the attraction of oppositely charged particles which are already included in chemical and typically organizes the molecules into some sort of crystalline solid. Secondly, network covalent bonding is where atoms are never truly singular compounds and bond with themselves continuously in a relatively massive "macromolecular" network. An example of this is diamond, a typical example with hardness and high melting point. The third is metallic bonding. For metals, the electrons that occupy their outermost energy level are distant from the positive nucleus and are so feebly attracted that they can transfer from the radius of one nucleus to a neighboring positive charge. In a sense, their electrons are in constant flux which allows metal to conduct electricity. The final are the London dispersion forces. If one could imagine the electrons surrounding the nucleus as a mobile cloud, then the electron of neighboring molecules would repel each other and also be attracted to the positive nucleus. This is a very mild force and often falls by the way side but it it is the reason why gases sometimes freeze at extremely low temperature, that ever-present weak force.


I had a very thought provoking conversation with some fellow students in the spare time of seventh period. The subject of some debate was the true nature of the atomic elements. We are talking of the chemical elements of the periodic table, nothing to do with Avatar: The Last Airbender, one of the greatest animated shows to grace our planet but I digress. Atomic manifest their properties from protons and electrons. A nucleus of protons, positive charges, tends to attract an equivalently charged quantity of electrons, negative charges, that occupy energy levels. Energy levels are stratum of electrons a certain radius from the positive proton nucleus. It follows that a relatively large positive charge would attract a large amount of electrons for multiple energy levels and a wide radius. Only certain discrete amounts of electrons can occupy  an energy level but generally those closest. Now that the groundwork has been established, we can discuss how certain period groups have their properties in a part two.


I have thought for a long time about 'truth', what it is and how to know it. Many things have a claim to 'truth' but the honesty of these declarations, all various and in disagreement, speak only on the obscurity of 'truth'. What holds fidelity in all contexts about 'truth' is that it is equivalent to reality and absolute certainty. There is no error in 'truth', it is the absolute security of fact and foundation and seemingly, by notions entirely self evident, Neil deGrasse Tyson holds a piece of the 'certainty' pie. 

Really, his twitter account speaks a great deal on his ardor for science and scholarship, passion for science fiction and his penchant for relating information. Neil deGrasse Tyson's tweets, nearly each and all, speak of science as a necessary fact or 'truth' to describe our world. But my consternation, my nit-pick, so to speak, is how obnoxious and alienating his media tends to be. As a figure of pop-science, I cannot fathom how, in my sparsely condensed brain cells, anyone would find pedantic, unamusingly pompous and disingenuous diatribe on science trivia to be insightful. If my dreadfully verbose locutions are even indicative of my sarcasm and ornery wrath, using science as a pretense to patronize a generation of presumably young followers is profusely wrong and unhelpful. But hey, I am just a humble student, my say is not to be treated with the same gravity as Carl Sagan's premier astrophysicist and really, this melodrama is all for my student's blog. Still here are examples, courtesy of whosoever took these screenshots.

Image result for neil degrasse tyson twitter

Image result for neil degrasse tyson new year

download.jpgdownload.jpgI suppose, for some of us, especially when it seems as if we have much to be thankful for from science, it is somewhat of a second nature to use science to lend credence or 'truth' to ostentatious claims of this or that for validation but these are ultimately missteps.

Post Statement: I had a lot of fun coming up with words, being on twitter and doing homework at once. Happy New Year.


At the time of writing Christmas is over, its before the New Year and the impetus to do anything school related has left my body and soul. Nonetheless I have a smithereen within me crying against the apathy that crowded so densely among my brain cells and I have found it and nourished it and it becomes this blogpost. According to the Wikipedia page, the small angle approximation is a convenient and necessary estimation where in some cases you can replace a trigonometric function of theta(Θ) with theta(Θ) itself. This is almost true as the angle in radians approaches zero, tan(Θ) and sin(Θ) will equal zero and cos(Θ) will equal one and this is approximately true for radian value slightly higher than zero. It seemed pertinent because one of the proofs we did in the last packet used this simplification and I'm certain that whosoever figured that one out thought themselves clever and are within their right to think so!


Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT is the written equation for the ideal gas law and I think it would be useful if we could talk about what is really happening in this equation. 

Now, an ideal gas is described in a theoretical outline that pretty much just says that a gas made of particles would have elastic collisions and no intermolecular forces hampering its expansion to a certain volume. This model is useful because it ignores some of the more delicate issues of gases by making assumptions.

Ok so for the PV, the pressure and volume of a gas are proportional that is if all else is kept constant, a decrease in volume, which would force these active gas particles closer together, would increase pressure. 


Now the other side of the equation is nRT. R is a constant for an amount of pressure which is inversely proportional to the moles in question and temperature, it depends on which metric you are using. Temperature is T, the kinetic energy of molecules, and n is the number of moles and moles are a whole thing, something times Avagrado's number. So the higher the temperature, it would produce higher pressures and volumes for the same quantity of moles. A high amount of moles would have a higher pressure and volume for a fixed temperature.


My bike and I

 I purchased a bike with the money I made last summer at my dreadful waitstaff job. Anyways despite the working conditions, I now had a used bicycle with several neat gears and a chain. Now I believe that these gears have some relation to my cycles per unit-of-time which I believe is similar to a 'frequency'  or cadence of turns on the main gear, perhaps similar to rotational velocity. A second gear operates the driver wheel which lends it similar amounts of speed if I could be so inclined to say so. I am terribly hesitant to draw conclusions, I know. Please forgive my tone but I digress. Anyways the real exciting part was the possible gear ratios, probably around twelve combinations, that all have a part to play in the torque and speed of the driver wheel which is coaxial with the driven gear. The translational speed of one gear is the same as the other however the rub is that the force and rotational speed of this combination depends on the gear ratio and radius. Essentially the driven gear receives from the input gear, the one I peddle, its speed and then a certain gear reduction arises from the quantity; gear ratio. A smaller gear operating on a large gear produces higher torque and lower angular speed while a larger gear operating on a smaller gear has lower torque and higher speed. 


Aztec Spear Thrower

An atlatl or spear thrower is one example of mankind's inherent knowledge of throwing spears well. The throw or "casting" involves acceleration, force etc. but the precise action that our mechanisms enhanced our early projectile weaponry is remarkable and telling of humanity's ingenuity. This device acts like an extension of the wielder's own arm amplifying the leverage, involving elements of the center of mass and whatnot, of the throwers arm and wrist. It also improved upon the stability of the cast using a rigid piece of wood or perhaps bone for an an atlatl instead of relying on the muscles of the arm. This balance in the throw is particularly important because the most effective strikes are delivered forcefully at the point of the spear, more pressure is applied at the very narrow end because of force per area. A selection of darts may use fletching to balance the projectile and these fins provide good lift or thrust due to air resistance. The amount of thought that our forebears put into killing things is notable because it is a point towards hallmark qualities that man has that animals do not, our high motivation and ability to plan. This is at the soul of humanity and I believe this is important to understanding our heritage and natural intuition as it is for supplementing our understanding of physics.



We consecrate thanksgiving in the abundance that has come to us, not in vainglory but of thankfulness for our lot in life. With a class of a few, we know each other by name and are never far apart. These blogs keep our thoughts fresh and physics at the forefront. Really, AP physics C is a paradise. The packets are straightforward and with a bit of searching, the answers are conveniently there with little confusion on the whole. Our equations are adequate and fulfilling, they are means to an end and I am thank that my forebears had thought them. Thanks, to my teachers and my peers. This year will be worth it!


Quantum Leap

The colloquialism "quantum leap" has uses beyond conversation. It describes atomic orbital transitions as electrons "leap" from energy level to another and in the process they either absorb or energy in the form of photons. "Quantum leap" is also used as a figure of speech, a short hand metaphor in language. The idiom may connote a change in something's character, a greater change in energy or excitement or even a "leap of faith" or "jump to conclusions". In my chemistry class, the notes had contained this phase when describing the phenomenon and because the notes somethings took on a conversational tone, I could not confidently differentiate between the two cases. Perhaps this is proof that science is becoming more mainstream, maybe I'm lunatic but believe that understanding many things enriches our involvement with study, that nothing is truly separate. In this way it may be important to know this trivial details.


It has occurred to me that I may not be the only one scrambling to type two or three or more blogs today. This is no one's fault, the blame rest on me alone but I wonder at the amusing possibilities that I have avoided by doing these blogs. The dread and anxiety that I could have curbed if only I had been more resourceful or the high-minded topics I would have espoused if only I had the impetus, speaking of astronomy and physical laws and their implications. I should start now, yes, Earth is the third planet from the Sun and its sufficiently heated for water to be in liquid form which gives it its life-giving properties. The charges of the individual atoms of water gives it the surface tension it needs to have the capillary effect, the specific heat capacity to not freeze or evaporate too readily and bring things into solution. Really, the chemical properties are emergent properties of the underlying physics. I guess that's all I came up with for now. 


So according to some scientist from another time. Each of an atom's electrons inhabits some energy level in the atom's orbit. To ascend to or descend from one of these, that electron must emit a photon of a specific frequency as a form of energy. One could think of this like an electron living on a floor of a building of many stories. To move up or down, signifying a change in energy, an electron must receive or emit a photon of an energy corresponding with the floor or energy state that its in. This minimum energy to move the electron is a quanta of electromagnetic energy. I believe we will be exploring this further in chemistry and id be happy to report back!


Fall Damage

When someone falls under normal circumstances, they collide with the ground with a certain measure of force and that same force is applied on the person as in Newton's third law. The force applied to a falling person is not instantaneous, but transferred through impulse, it is essentially a change in momentum. So the force of the fall that causes the second highest amount of accidental death in the world is dependent on the impulse or J=FΔT upon impact. The time-span of the impact diminishes the force that would be potentially lethal. Therefore if someone could maneuver a squat out just in time before the impact or hit some deformable substance, the total impulse would be the same but the force is effectively reduced.


Physics in Ap Chem

A friend of mine expressed her misplaced disgust upon seeing the kinetic energy equation, K = 1/2*m(v^2), on one of the Ap Chem packets. Regardless, the kinetic energy helps define the energy gained or lost in a reaction in the form of heat. If it helps, one can think of heat as the kinetic energy of molecules in random directions. If matter is energetic enough, it may undergo phase changes. This is also a form of internal energy, the work that is performed on the surroundings by a reaction becomes heat and is an example of the conservation of energy.


As people begin to join into larger groups, the very size may become a problem itself. Before the year is too far underway, it is important to note that the size of the group in question in particular causes diffusion of responsibility. Sometimes in groups of three or more, individuals feel less motivation to achieve something or work towards an end, often relying on others to complete a task as they feel the same in turn. Groups also may allow things to occurs as a result of inaction, believing someone else will handle things. Sometimes members will shirk culpability for mistakes, perhaps like a poor grade, and attribute it to the group as a whole. So as the year passes, keep these phenomenon in mind as you may be able to prevent them.


Loafin' Around

In opposition to social facilitation there is a second case of phenomenon called social loafing. We have all heard, known or experienced of that individual in media or real life group that slacks off, we may be that person. Now this individual is not a wicked sort nor has the capacity to know what exactly could be afoot, like many of us, they act out of circumstance. As study groups form in the physics classroom this may become manifest over time. Social loafing pertains to the perceived decrease in productivity when efforts are combined. A way to think of it is with a game of tug-o-war, a person alone would exert more of an effort than in a group. So next time an activity in presented to your group, keep an eye out for loafing around. Groups depend on each other after-all so keep each other honest workers and stay motivated yourself!


Group work has become especially prevalent in the classroom of '17. As teams form, a psychological phenomenon can be observed under the right conditions, social facilitation. The performance of individuals in the presence of others, in other words as a group, tends to be better on doing simple tasks rather than complex or abstract thinking. In physics C, it is quite often we learn new information and thus the performance of the group with ill-rehearsed tasks and problems will most likely degrade and therefore be ineffective. So as this tend of teamwork endures long into the year, remember that utilizing cooperative efforts to acquire new skills may be ill-fated to end sourly. 


LaTex Help.

So by now most, if not everyone has completed a proper LaTex lab report for a basic measuring circles experience. I cannot know but all the more suspect that people may have had problems with LaTex. I for one had a bit of trouble last-minute getting my PDF printed so maybe I'm awkward with this tool or inexperienced with LaTex. What I could have used before was a helpful bit of information concerning the ins and outs of LaTex which I am certain a few overzealous students are well versed in. Anyways I found an important aid for students that may want to learn more about this newfangled tool since it will be pivotal through out the year. I will include the URL below and wish everyone the best of luck with this new tool.




Kinematics Test Eulogy

So on the twenty first of September in the year two thousand seventeen, anno domini we lost many good men to a test. What's important now, moving unwearyingly forward, is to not lose heart. Our forerunners have been through similar sorts so although our path may seem an onerous, impossible kind, a capable hand and mutual counsel will bring us fruition. Keep in mind that retakes are available, studying is worthwhile and AP physics C is a community. In this dreadful hour, we are not merely alone but we have each other's utmost generosity and the whole extent of one another's courtesy.


Some time ago, I wrote a research paper about Isaac Newton for a social studies class. I did not investigate my topic well until after I handed my ill-researched paper in, a poor choice on my part but my curiosity about the subject did not leave me. I began by read a few articles, just enough to have a partial idea of what it was I should have wrote about and the figure I had neglected to properly study. Isaac Newton had a hand in optics, classical physics, and the creation of his laws of motion. He discovered the law of universal gravitation when he was twenty two years old which in total, became a crucial part of forming our modern ideas of physics and natural laws. Eventually he received accolades and held the title of knighthood for his immense contributions. Overall, I think that Isaac Newton should have a bit more attention from the public so his work can come to light.



1.a. Learning is fast, knowledge is composed of isolated facts, being good at a subject is inborn and I'm really good at multitasking.

b. The second belief because many natural occurrences operate on the same dynamic laws and metrics.

c. Metacognition helps us understand the way we think and improve those aspects of cognition.

2.a. The intention to learn, paying close attention to the course material as you study, following as learning style, time spent learning.

b Commitment of information to be considered related and meaningful.

c. Minimizing distractions, developing good metacognition, processing critical concepts and retrieving and applying those concepts.


3 Elaboration: Seeking practical examples.

Distinctiveness: recognize and distinguish concepts, topics and mathematical situations

Personal: information relative to you.

Retrieval and Application: this depends heavily on the correctness and accuracy of the information in question.

Automacity: working independently

Overlearning: do not confuse certain points of critical information.


4.a. 1. metacognition: to prepare our conscience for learning exercises

2.she asked students to gauge how well they performed against how they actually performed

3. Students tend to overestimate themselves and their abilities as well as underperform when the occasion arises.

4. The lack of critical thinking in high schools does not do much good in the way of preparing college students.

5. The mnemonic connections made along the paths of retrieval.

6. Reading, the relations that compose a narrative are analogous to those made by study.


b. They both require proactive strategies to be involved in the learning process. Their relation to concepts prior and mathematics involved as well as following known natural laws must use the strategies described in this video series. Best to keep in mind that answers are obtainable and that deep processing must be achieved simultaneously in study.


c. The choice to be in a group may or may not hinder the efforts of its individuals or as a social organism become an effective team or to isolate one another into focused study a difficult one. However making delegations of members to carry out tasks manages time better than a student alone could.


5.a. Panic and denial.

b.reexamine your study habits, reveiw this exam, speak with your teacher and be more prepared.

C. wholly commit, minimize distractions, attend all classes, set realistic goals and don't slide.

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