Where do elements get their physical properties? Well the short answer is inter-molecular forces and that's really all the time I have to spare before the second quarter. Several inter-molecular forces keep an element at a certain phase of matter. The tenacity of these forces depends a great deal on the circumstances of pressure and temperature but for blog purposes, it is safe to think of these at standard pressure and temperate so it is easily visualized. These so-called inter-molecular forces exist in four main types. The first is dipole-dipole bonding which includes hydrogen bonding. This type entails the attraction of oppositely charged particles which are already included in chemical and typically organizes the molecules into some sort of crystalline solid. Secondly, network covalent bonding is where atoms are never truly singular compounds and bond with themselves continuously in a relatively massive "macromolecular" network. An example of this is diamond, a typical example with hardness and high melting point. The third is metallic bonding. For metals, the electrons that occupy their outermost energy level are distant from the positive nucleus and are so feebly attracted that they can transfer from the radius of one nucleus to a neighboring positive charge. In a sense, their electrons are in constant flux which allows metal to conduct electricity. The final are the London dispersion forces. If one could imagine the electrons surrounding the nucleus as a mobile cloud, then the electron of neighboring molecules would repel each other and also be attracted to the positive nucleus. This is a very mild force and often falls by the way side but it it is the reason why gases sometimes freeze at extremely low temperature, that ever-present weak force.
I had a very thought provoking conversation with some fellow students in the spare time of seventh period. The subject of some debate was the true nature of the atomic elements. We are talking of the chemical elements of the periodic table, nothing to do with Avatar: The Last Airbender, one of the greatest animated shows to grace our planet but I digress. Atomic manifest their properties from protons and electrons. A nucleus of protons, positive charges, tends to attract an equivalently charged quantity of electrons, negative charges, that occupy energy levels. Energy levels are stratum of electrons a certain radius from the positive proton nucleus. It follows that a relatively large positive charge would attract a large amount of electrons for multiple energy levels and a wide radius. Only certain discrete amounts of electrons can occupy an energy level but generally those closest. Now that the groundwork has been established, we can discuss how certain period groups have their properties in a part two.
We consecrate thanksgiving in the abundance that has come to us, not in vainglory but of thankfulness for our lot in life. With a class of a few, we know each other by name and are never far apart. These blogs keep our thoughts fresh and physics at the forefront. Really, AP physics C is a paradise. The packets are straightforward and with a bit of searching, the answers are conveniently there with little confusion on the whole. Our equations are adequate and fulfilling, they are means to an end and I am thank that my forebears had thought them. Thanks, to my teachers and my peers. This year will be worth it!
The triboelectric effect manifests from frictional contact between materials resulting in contact electrification but why? Why are things like this? Why do we live? Why do we die? But anyways here the things we have to know. People have been using this effect like a play thing, charging objects to repel another or zapping frogs apparently (thank you) and I believe it was quite important to our discovery of electromagnetism, especially in the ancient world. If your childhood was at all interesting, you have tried building some sort of potential difference on your person by sliding around on a rug and feeling the power crackle at your fingertips, jolting some poor door knob or family member. That visible stroke of electricity, the spark, indicates to us that there was some level of discharge and depending on the conductivity of the air, it becomes easier to achieve. So when two materials contact they may make a small amount of chemical bonds where one is more likely to receive a negative charge and the other a positive charge due to the inter-molecular forces at play, this is the triboelectric effect. Now that there is some polarity, potential difference is developed and this discovery has had quite an effect in the advancement of the field of physics. Join me for part two: The Leyden Jar in this series.
Mechanical waves move through matter as a medium and as such many of the natural laws that pertain to motion and dynamics have special places in the study of mechanical waves. One type of wave is sound which most easily propagates through air however because of the laws of momentum one could expect that a mechanical wave is maintained through any matter. A solid barrier for example would be so rigid that it would absorb the impact of a wave and impede passage slightly beyond the barrier. This would produce a sound shadow where the sound loses its momentum in passage through the solid.
Anyways this is the last blog post. Thanks FizziksGuy, even in the darkest of nights, you were by my side all along, my true mentor,
At the time of writing Christmas is over, its before the New Year and the impetus to do anything school related has left my body and soul. Nonetheless I have a smithereen within me crying against the apathy that crowded so densely among my brain cells and I have found it and nourished it and it becomes this blogpost. According to the Wikipedia page, the small angle approximation is a convenient and necessary estimation where in some cases you can replace a trigonometric function of theta(Θ) with theta(Θ) itself. This is almost true as the angle in radians approaches zero, tan(Θ) and sin(Θ) will equal zero and cos(Θ) will equal one and this is approximately true for radian value slightly higher than zero. It seemed pertinent because one of the proofs we did in the last packet used this simplification and I'm certain that whosoever figured that one out thought themselves clever and are within their right to think so!
As the nature of electricity was investigated into the eighteenth century through static electricity and to a certain extent the triboelectric effect, it was only natural that the discovery of electric charge and capacitance would follow. Independently, three scientists named Ewald Georg von Kleist, Pieter van Musschenbroek and Andreas Cunaeus. A machine of sorts, one that would supply charge through triboelectric electric effect by friction, would transfer the charge to two conducting, metallic foils that act as electrodes, generated a disparity in charge and electric potential. The plates are on the inside and the outside of a glass jar, the glass acting as a semiconductor and because of the electric field, electric potential is created across the glass. This glass would "hold" the charge in a sense. You see, the mystery at the time was the exact nature of electricity. Many believe electricity was some invisible fluid-like thing. Electricity could only be observed from sparks, repulsion and other natural phenomenon so at the time humans were working with an incomplete theory of electricity. However the later two scientists Pieter van Musschenbroek and Andreas Cunaeus identified the mechanism of action that we now know today. The idea is that the inside and outside surfaces of the glass became charged by the foils, equally and oppositely, causing a potential difference across the glass itself as a dielectric. The discovery of capacitance has lead to the advent of a variety of useful modern technologies like computers and circuitry which I hope to investigate at a later time.
I was watching this video of a man slapping a molten stream of metal. Let there be no doubt that this fiery stream was beyond glistering, the scathe of flesh and branches, such that man has never seen. Anyways it was bizarre because his hand passed through unscathed, leaving nary a mark. Perplexed, I began to think and when I could not find any bulletproof conclusions I searched the vast corners of cyberspace to discover the existence of what is called the Leidenfrost effect, there before my eyes. In short, when a liquid contacts a surface of far greater heat than its self, the outermost layer of the liquid will boil into naught but a layer of vapor, insulating the whole from heat. The man must have had some sweat or the like on the surface of his skin and when they came in contact with the hot metal the vapor formed a vapor and under the aegis he was not harmed. This phenomenon can be observed when dropping water on a hot pan, they scatter because of this vapor.
I have thought for a long time about 'truth', what it is and how to know it. Many things have a claim to 'truth' but the honesty of these declarations, all various and in disagreement, speak only on the obscurity of 'truth'. What holds fidelity in all contexts about 'truth' is that it is equivalent to reality and absolute certainty. There is no error in 'truth', it is the absolute security of fact and foundation and seemingly, by notions entirely self evident, Neil deGrasse Tyson holds a piece of the 'certainty' pie.
Really, his twitter account speaks a great deal on his ardor for science and scholarship, passion for science fiction and his penchant for relating information. Neil deGrasse Tyson's tweets, nearly each and all, speak of science as a necessary fact or 'truth' to describe our world. But my consternation, my nit-pick, so to speak, is how obnoxious and alienating his media tends to be. As a figure of pop-science, I cannot fathom how, in my sparsely condensed brain cells, anyone would find pedantic, unamusingly pompous and disingenuous diatribe on science trivia to be insightful. If my dreadfully verbose locutions are even indicative of my sarcasm and ornery wrath, using science as a pretense to patronize a generation of presumably young followers is profusely wrong and unhelpful. But hey, I am just a humble student, my say is not to be treated with the same gravity as Carl Sagan's premier astrophysicist and really, this melodrama is all for my student's blog. Still here are examples, courtesy of whosoever took these screenshots.
I suppose, for some of us, especially when it seems as if we have much to be thankful for from science, it is somewhat of a second nature to use science to lend credence or 'truth' to ostentatious claims of this or that for validation but these are ultimately missteps.
Post Statement: I had a lot of fun coming up with words, being on twitter and doing homework at once. Happy New Year.
Group work has become especially prevalent in the classroom of '17. As teams form, a psychological phenomenon can be observed under the right conditions, social facilitation. The performance of individuals in the presence of others, in other words as a group, tends to be better on doing simple tasks rather than complex or abstract thinking. In physics C, it is quite often we learn new information and thus the performance of the group with ill-rehearsed tasks and problems will most likely degrade and therefore be ineffective. So as this tend of teamwork endures long into the year, remember that utilizing cooperative efforts to acquire new skills may be ill-fated to end sourly.
I once had confidence in my chemistry abilities but now I am only familiar with the element of sadness. After my penultimate chemistry test, I reflected on every agonizing measure I made to seat before the multiple choice booklet in a room remote from happiness which maddened me with its taciturn silence. I can look back upon the years of my boyhood, the better parts of it spent in school, and I am overwhelmed by regret, failure and portents of a miserable future. I remember the day my scholastic ardor left me, mere minutes before school ended I was taken away from class for the space of months, left to my own devices in isolation. I did not return to school the same student since, after my sentence, I held school and by extension my own education in bitter contempt. Now I am nearly eighteen and I have not a single way out nor any notable successes thus far. It seems that with no agency of my own, I was brought here by my parents, my society and by cruel fate to live by a will that I cannot call my own. However more's the pity, one's future is one's own making, I must deserve this. Now I must bid a saddening farewell to all the people I have grown up with, the people I have done wrong.
The colloquialism "quantum leap" has uses beyond conversation. It describes atomic orbital transitions as electrons "leap" from energy level to another and in the process they either absorb or energy in the form of photons. "Quantum leap" is also used as a figure of speech, a short hand metaphor in language. The idiom may connote a change in something's character, a greater change in energy or excitement or even a "leap of faith" or "jump to conclusions". In my chemistry class, the notes had contained this phase when describing the phenomenon and because the notes somethings took on a conversational tone, I could not confidently differentiate between the two cases. Perhaps this is proof that science is becoming more mainstream, maybe I'm lunatic but believe that understanding many things enriches our involvement with study, that nothing is truly separate. In this way it may be important to know this trivial details.
A friend of mine expressed her misplaced disgust upon seeing the kinetic energy equation, K = 1/2*m(v^2), on one of the Ap Chem packets. Regardless, the kinetic energy helps define the energy gained or lost in a reaction in the form of heat. If it helps, one can think of heat as the kinetic energy of molecules in random directions. If matter is energetic enough, it may undergo phase changes. This is also a form of internal energy, the work that is performed on the surroundings by a reaction becomes heat and is an example of the conservation of energy.
You know its just nice to be here, blogging with my physics fellows and learning new things in a great class environment but real talk, before the second quarter closes on all of my fat head, I just wanted to say that I think that these physics blogs are great, an excellent creative opportunity to connect the dots, so to speak, on the physics topics we've learned. However I feel that not everybody is getting enough out of them for their own sake. These blogs while not necessarily throwaways can be taken to their creative limits. This is not English class so I can say "I" and begin sentences with "and" and not get my knuckles rapped with a two-by-four. Blogging can be very social with all the extra features and comment system and these blogs, while requiring a bit of thought, are not going to be scrutinized by anyone outside of the class room so there is not too much pressure to be meticulously detailed and factual, though it is appreciated. My point is these are fun and I wish I heard about them more. One can talk about science fiction theories or how they think the earth doesn't spin (I'm only joking). These really can be what you make of it in the end.
A common underestimation of our forebears in their histories and scientific achievements is that it was common in many archaic cosmological models that the Earth was a flat, disc-like plane. Without a doubt, there are people that persist to this very space-age day that trust in a flat Earth but it was in no way exclusively an ancient phenomenon or a common one. Even with few scientific instruments, the elder humans, unequipped with the internet and latest edition of The AP Physics C Companion: Mechanics (full color edition) by Dan Fullerton for only $19.99 on Amazon and free shipping with Amazon Prime, saw how boats would disappear over the horizon and observed that the stars would seem to swirl about an axis which also was an idea supported by the Christian church. The idea that people did not know the Earth was round stems from several fabrications made to support a popular thesis at one point that religion and science could not co-exist. Which brings me to this point: the resurgence of the Flat Earth Society. It is caused solely by social media's way of spreading disinformation and allowing people to assemble into a Facebook group of over thirty thousand apparently sincere believers of a flat Earth model. So I leave off with question: should you even believe in this post because it is social media?
In AP Chem, my schoolmates and were using a colorimeter to measure the absorbency of certain concentrations of a colored solution. I notice how any color of light, except for the color of the solution, would be absorbed an amount proportional to the amount of solute disassociated in solution. I wondered why this was? A red solution would absorb blue or green spectrum of light but not red light, in fact from the reading of the colorimeter it would seem that an incarnadine solution would emit red light, give us a negative absorbency constant. A relevant bit of information would come from the fact that a perfectly white-colored object may reflect all incoming light and a perfectly red colored object would reflect only red light and a dark object would absorb all incoming light. Imagine a ruddy colored mineral, if a blue or green light shone on it the mineral would appear nearly black because it absorbs the light spectrum however if a red light shone on its face it would appear as a brighter red. This was a revelation that occurred to me late Friday during that lab and I would hope that it proffers someone, somewhere some insight into the nature of light. @BrandyBoy72
I purchased a bike with the money I made last summer at my dreadful waitstaff job. Anyways despite the working conditions, I now had a used bicycle with several neat gears and a chain. Now I believe that these gears have some relation to my cycles per unit-of-time which I believe is similar to a 'frequency' or cadence of turns on the main gear, perhaps similar to rotational velocity. A second gear operates the driver wheel which lends it similar amounts of speed if I could be so inclined to say so. I am terribly hesitant to draw conclusions, I know. Please forgive my tone but I digress. Anyways the real exciting part was the possible gear ratios, probably around twelve combinations, that all have a part to play in the torque and speed of the driver wheel which is coaxial with the driven gear. The translational speed of one gear is the same as the other however the rub is that the force and rotational speed of this combination depends on the gear ratio and radius. Essentially the driven gear receives from the input gear, the one I peddle, its speed and then a certain gear reduction arises from the quantity; gear ratio. A smaller gear operating on a large gear produces higher torque and lower angular speed while a larger gear operating on a smaller gear has lower torque and higher speed.
At the time of writing the Magnetism unit has come and gone and perhaps writing this is more for show than anything. Nevertheless, I have something to prove by showing the internet that for a mediocre high school student I can be resourceful yet in paraphrasing the magnetism Wikipedia page. It is enough to know the math of something and then venture to take an exam where the capability to succeed is at your fingertips but the concept of magnetism defines the models that work, so the underlying mechanism of magnetism is a pressing issue indeed. In the ancient world, magnetism is observed in naturally occurring lodestones, magnetite and iron alloys whereupon the natural philosophers of bygone times poured over speculations and experiments formulating the modern model that our current science is based on. So what I can grasp of magnets is that electrons have a quantum angular momentum directed in a certain way. This angular momentum is intrinsic and because the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons with the same spin. So imagine the mass movement of an uncountable number of electrons oriented the same way there would be a larger magnetic movement throughout the material which is normally iron and thus creates ferromagnetism.
Okay dear readers, put on your tinfoil caps, wave goodbye to the friendly NSA agents and put a piece of tape over your webcam because I have a theory that may cause the collapse of organized society as we know it so listen up, you may just weep with profound enlightenment and then go to your local grocer for some Tylenol P.M. for that philosophy insomnia. Know bear in mind this is not founded on any fact or science, I thought this would be more of an exercise in 'metaphysics' or something of the like that would give me this liberty so admittedly this is probably the wrong place to be writing something so unscientific but whatever.
My theory starts with the premise that life itself converges upon one single destiny, which I will call the "Monad" for the sake of the theory, which describes the maximum amount of 'knowledge' or 'highest gradient' possible in space and signifies the termination of all prevenient forms of life or technology. If primeval life did arise spontaneously, say from the primordial collision of organic matter and energetic phenomenon, then the occurrence must be one of profound rarity because no where else in the cosmos has this sort of sophisticated life-forms. Now imagine these very humble, transitory reactions becoming self-rearanging, self regulating structures akin to primitive endosymbionts and then through symbiogensis, becoming the first cells. It follows that the cells that were able to reproduce from raw, inert matter and natural energy via thermal vents or the sun would become the Common Universal Ancestors (CUA), progenitors of all life. The changes that occur in these steps seem to create higher extents of energy, matter and life through the proliferation of a single or mere few CUA into the diverse species of our planet, whereupon evolution has acted since. Natural selection can be understood from the eradication of early, microscopic life to the death even complex organisms by an extension of 'entropy'. The 'thermodynamic' systems that early life developed from must have been of sufficient 'heat' and requisite organic richness to go through as many permutations of 'micro-states' as needed to create cells, the probability of which falls squarely against the 'equilibrium state' and 'entrophic' tendencies. In a similar fashion an organism that degenerates under sufficient entropy-like conditions (e.i. mutation or damage) to sustain life is recycled during deterioration and energy is lost to systems other than detrivores. It is this same entrophy which causes the mutations that give rise, potentially to evolution.
WARNING: More Insane (I was tired when I wrote this last part)
The organisms to follow are of a higher degree of complexity and specificity determined by the circumstances that the environment and the selective pressures the organisms themselves acts upon them. Keep in mind that the various species (multi-cellular, colonial, prokaryote or eucaryote) are actually all the mass proliferation of the self-same CUA that would seem to gather 'energy' for higher trophic levels from producer organisms to apex species via food chain. This is not merely a cycle or a transfer but a contribution to the reproduction of descendant, evolved organisms which we know to normally be of higher accumulation than the previous, all as steps to developing the 'Monad'. That is when the advent of Mankind began as evolution created an organism capable of devising their own means to ensure survival through sentience and sapience. Gradually humanity shows evidence of the formation of knowledge (record keeping) and organization (civilization) as forms of this evolutionary accumulation. The ramification of this knowledge would naturally be the hatred of the CUA that progressed far enough to create Mankind's beliefs, emotions and minds that are tormented by an entrophic universe that despises all life. Now recognize that society and civilization are machinations created by fundamental functions to channel the entire collective exertion of humanity into higher forms of life or perhaps in the form of digital technology or transhuman life-form and ultimately the 'Monad'. This is a mere speculation after all which I have not explained well yet I cannot be rid of the certainty that this could be despite my indifference to scientific conclusions, it may seem possible that organic life terminates and transforms into some information-energy dense technology or higher organism without the human soul and this terrifies me.
In opposition to social facilitation there is a second case of phenomenon called social loafing. We have all heard, known or experienced of that individual in media or real life group that slacks off, we may be that person. Now this individual is not a wicked sort nor has the capacity to know what exactly could be afoot, like many of us, they act out of circumstance. As study groups form in the physics classroom this may become manifest over time. Social loafing pertains to the perceived decrease in productivity when efforts are combined. A way to think of it is with a game of tug-o-war, a person alone would exert more of an effort than in a group. So next time an activity in presented to your group, keep an eye out for loafing around. Groups depend on each other after-all so keep each other honest workers and stay motivated yourself!
So according to some scientist from another time. Each of an atom's electrons inhabits some energy level in the atom's orbit. To ascend to or descend from one of these, that electron must emit a photon of a specific frequency as a form of energy. One could think of this like an electron living on a floor of a building of many stories. To move up or down, signifying a change in energy, an electron must receive or emit a photon of an energy corresponding with the floor or energy state that its in. This minimum energy to move the electron is a quanta of electromagnetic energy. I believe we will be exploring this further in chemistry and id be happy to report back!
So by now most, if not everyone has completed a proper LaTex lab report for a basic measuring circles experience. I cannot know but all the more suspect that people may have had problems with LaTex. I for one had a bit of trouble last-minute getting my PDF printed so maybe I'm awkward with this tool or inexperienced with LaTex. What I could have used before was a helpful bit of information concerning the ins and outs of LaTex which I am certain a few overzealous students are well versed in. Anyways I found an important aid for students that may want to learn more about this newfangled tool since it will be pivotal through out the year. I will include the URL below and wish everyone the best of luck with this new tool.
So on the twenty first of September in the year two thousand seventeen, anno domini we lost many good men to a test. What's important now, moving unwearyingly forward, is to not lose heart. Our forerunners have been through similar sorts so although our path may seem an onerous, impossible kind, a capable hand and mutual counsel will bring us fruition. Keep in mind that retakes are available, studying is worthwhile and AP physics C is a community. In this dreadful hour, we are not merely alone but we have each other's utmost generosity and the whole extent of one another's courtesy.
Some time ago, I wrote a research paper about Isaac Newton for a social studies class. I did not investigate my topic well until after I handed my ill-researched paper in, a poor choice on my part but my curiosity about the subject did not leave me. I began by read a few articles, just enough to have a partial idea of what it was I should have wrote about and the figure I had neglected to properly study. Isaac Newton had a hand in optics, classical physics, and the creation of his laws of motion. He discovered the law of universal gravitation when he was twenty two years old which in total, became a crucial part of forming our modern ideas of physics and natural laws. Eventually he received accolades and held the title of knighthood for his immense contributions. Overall, I think that Isaac Newton should have a bit more attention from the public so his work can come to light.
PV = nRT is the written equation for the ideal gas law and I think it would be useful if we could talk about what is really happening in this equation.
Now, an ideal gas is described in a theoretical outline that pretty much just says that a gas made of particles would have elastic collisions and no intermolecular forces hampering its expansion to a certain volume. This model is useful because it ignores some of the more delicate issues of gases by making assumptions.
Ok so for the PV, the pressure and volume of a gas are proportional that is if all else is kept constant, a decrease in volume, which would force these active gas particles closer together, would increase pressure.
Now the other side of the equation is nRT. R is a constant for an amount of pressure which is inversely proportional to the moles in question and temperature, it depends on which metric you are using. Temperature is T, the kinetic energy of molecules, and n is the number of moles and moles are a whole thing, something times Avagrado's number. So the higher the temperature, it would produce higher pressures and volumes for the same quantity of moles. A high amount of moles would have a higher pressure and volume for a fixed temperature.
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