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About NathanKenney

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  1. In the spirit of the new resident evil game coming out very soon, it should be interesting to find out how many characters should have died in the previous game in a helicopter crash. Throughout Resident evil 6, the are a few helicopter crashes, and in the usual horror game scare tactic, everyone but the main characters die in these crashes. But should your characters have lived? There is an average of 1.44 fatalities per hundred thousand hours flown in a helicopter, and you can probably make a safe guess that if your helicopter crashes, you're at much higher risk for dying. Although there are countless factors that play into how a helicopter crash will turn out, lets just break it down to its simplest form, how high up would a helicopter fall from, and how much does a helicopter weigh? An average cruising height for a helicopter is around 2000ft or 609.6 meters, and an average helicopter weighs about 10000 pounds or 4535.924 kilograms. So, with those estimates, a helicopter would hit the ground with roughly a force of 2765099.27 newtons, and while it is definitely difficult to say how much force it takes to kill a person, it is most likely safe to say that this much force spread out across your entire body as well as the environment around you is lily enough to kill you. So based on this, things aren't looking too good for our heroes Leon and Helana, especially considering even if they do somehow miraculously survive the initial impact, they would still have to immediately begin fighting zombies, and with those odds, chances of survival are looking pretty poor. So, is it possible to survive a helicopter crash? Yes. Is it likely? no. Falling to the ground in a 10,000 pound box of death is generally not very good for your health and should be avoided at all costs if possible.
  2. Guitar pickups are really interesting technology. most people have seen or played an electric guitar, and the way that the guitar is able to transmit sound to the amplifier is through the pickups. in essence, a guitar pickup is a set of magnets wrapped in wire. while there are different types of pickups such as humbuckers, single coils, and p90's among others, they all operate in generally the same way. It all starts by playing a string on the guitar, and from there, the physics really gets interesting. the permanent magnets in the pickup create a magnetic field, and the vibration of the string creates a flux through the magnetic field, which then creates a voltage in the wire which is then transmitted to the amplifier via a quarter inch cable so you are actually able to hear it at a reasonable volume. Other types of pickups such as humbuckers, offer specific benefits not enjoyed by single coil pickups, Humbuckers feature 2 coils that are wound opposite eachother as well as having every other magnet have the polarity flipped so that when interference noises are picked up by the pickups, the noise is distributed evenly throughout all directions, and the interference noises are then cancelled out by the opposite wound coils since they have an equal amount of interference distributed throughout them in opposite directions. Guitar pickups are really a very influential invention, allowing new cool sounds to be made with a guitar, creating the basis for entire genres of music.
  3. In the interest of simplicity, we're going to talk about how a co2 powered blow-back style paintball gun works, because an electric paintball gun has so many complex parts, each one could have it's own explanation. so, Simply put, a co2 tank is screwed into the back of the gun, the gas flows through the gun, and is used to move the bolt back and forth, creating enough pressure behind the ball so send it flying out of the barrel. So, since this style of paintball gun is mainly gas through (no air regulation between the tank and the rammer), the main part that must be explained is the poppit valve. When pressure from the gas is released into the lower chamber when the trigger is pressed, the rammer is compressed back against the spring, moving the bolt backwards and allowing a paintball to enter the upper chamber the bolt then slams forward into the ball, followed by a puff of gas which propels the ball out of the barrel at about 300ft/s.the force from the gas being released again pushed the rammer back, compressing a spring, which will then repeat the whole process over again as the trigger is pulled again. This is where the type of paintball gun gets its name of "blowback style" as the gas released with each trigger pull "blows back" the rammer into place, resetting it and preparing it for another shot without the user manually having to move anything between shots.
  4. As legendary guitar player Tom Morello once said, a whammy pedal is essential for making those awesome pterodactyl sounds. but what even is a guitar effects pedal? simply, it changes the sound a guitar makes somewhere between playing the strings and the sound coming out of the amp. For now, we'll just focus on distortion pedals which are probably the most common pedals. Distortion pedals will distort the "clean sound" a guitar makes before the effect of the pedal is added in. When a guitar is played, sound is picked up by the pickups and sent through the quarter inch jack in the form of an electronic signal that corresponds to a sound wave. When this wave reaches the distortion pedal, depending on the circuit within the given distortion pedal, it will change the shape of the sound wave generally change the shape of the peaks and troughs of the wave, and then send the through to the amplifier, resulting in a distorted sound as the final product. Distortion pedals will generally have a knob that lets the user control how intense the effect is, or how much you will distort the wave.
  5. So recently, record players have been making a resurgence. While there's no denying that they're pretty cool, and sound way better than a cd or mp3 (if you even care about that) they work in a pretty cool way. Record players as we know them now, work by spinning a record on a turntable, that is usually belt driven to spin a record at a given speed, most commonly either 33.5 rpm or 45 rpm. record players have a needle that runs through the grooves of the record that picks up vibrations which are sent through the needle, into wires in the are that are then sent through a coil in a magnetic field which then converts it into an electrical signal that is sent through an amplifier, and finally the speakers, producing the sound that you hear. there are a lot of factors, however, that can contribute to how a record plays. for example, if there is a scratch in the record it could skip through the song. also if the grooves in the record aren't deep enough, the record could skip over the grooves without a scratch even being present just from the oscillation of the needle. Some of these issues can be fixed with features on the record player, such as anti-skate, and anti-skip features, which changes the tension of the arm on the record which will generally help the record stay in the grooves better, and possibly even play through a scratch with only minor hiccups where the scratch is present rather than skip through the entire song.
  6. All cars have an exhaust system. Some are loud, some are quiet, and some are just totally broken. And some of them have a tip that functionally does absolutely nothing, but cost $15 and take an entire day to put on and don't even turn blue when you burn them. But what do they do? Well, simply, they filter dangerous and environment harming chemicals out of the exhaust, as well as quiet down the car quite a bit. But the way it actually works is the catalytic converter creates an oxidizing effect on the gas that passes through it, replacing harmful gasses such as carbon monoxide with less harmful gasses such as carbon dioxide, as well as reduce the amount of nitrogen oxides that are emmited. Mufflers work by having a fiberglass lining that absorbs some of the sound, as well as acting as a resonating chamber that creates destructive interference getting rid of a lot of the noise. This is essentially how an exhaust system on a car works, and thigh it's not perfect, it's actually a really cool system that serves a great purpose.
  7. Living in Rochester, I highly doubt anyone has been afforded the luxury of not having to drive in the snow, whether doing the driving yourself or just riding in the car with someone else. I've certainly had a few terrifying experiences in the snow, from not being able to see, to not being able to stop, to just outright totally losing control, but what factors play into this lovely experience known as winter driving that causes these wonderful situations? Well, to answer this question as well as I can, we first have to start with the basics of a car. Cars are able to move because an engine withing the car is powered by explosions of the gasoline within the engine, which generates a force which is then used to spin the wheels of the car. once the wheels are able to start spinning, a torque is created which is necessary to move the car. Friction must remain maintained between the tires and the road, however, for the duration of the drive in order to be able to move, similar to how there must be friction between your feet and the ground in order for you to walk forward. Now that this concept is out of the way, we can get into how snow effects these mechanics. The coefficient of friction between rubber and dry pavement is .67. This provides enough grip to move a car where it needs to go effectively. On wet pavement, however, the coefficient of friction decreases to .53, which is certainly enough to impact driving, especially at high speeds. But what about in snowy or icy conditions? Well, the coefficient of friction between rubber and ice is .15. this is less than a forth of the coefficient of friction between rubber and dry pavement, and less than a third of rubber on wet pavement, so, next time you're about to round that icy corner, just think about that. There are some things that can be done to increase friction when roads get icy or snowy, such as add weight, or even pus snow tires on your car. the increased weight will increase the downward normal force on the car, which will in turn increase friction, however, this added weight will also increase stopping distance, and on an already slippery road, that's probably not the best option. snow tires, however, are designed with a different rubber compound that remains more flexible in colder conditions, while a traditional summer or all season tire would stiffen and become less effective. They also provide a much deeper tread than an all season tire, and are designed with he intent of throwing snow out from underneath the tire, rather than just drive over it. with all of these factors in mind, it is easy to see why winter driving is always such a unique experience.
  8. Diet Coke explodes when you drop mentos in it, most people have seen it, if not done it themselves, but why? Well, there are a lot of parts to answering this question. First of all, why Diet Coke? Well, Diet Coke generally has slightly more carbonation than regular Coke, which plays into the next part. The bubbles are drawn to the small indentations in the metros, as they search for a way to escape the liquid, which causes a foam, which will create pressure within the bottle eventually causing the explosion. Because mentors are made of many layers, each layer has lots of microscopic bumps that provide a lot of surface area for the carbon dioxide bubbles to grab on to. Because of the increased carbonation in Diet Coke, and the effect of the mentors on that carbonatin the build up in pressure as a result causes the explosion that we all know.
  9. What a guitar amp does is pretty self-explanitory, it's even in the name. It amplifies the sound of an electric guitar. Although an acoustic and electric guitar operate fundamentally differently, similar principles apply to both, strings vibrate at a specific frequency, the sound waves then resonate though the wood and air, creating sound, however, electric guitars have their own method of amplifying the sound, an amplifier. Electric guitars all feature some kind of pickups, which pick up the sound from the strings, and send it to a quarter inch audio jack on the guitar. That jack, with some assistance from a quarter inch cable, can then in turn be plugged into an amplifier. Many common guitar amps feature both the amplifier as well as a speaker within a single enclosure, however many higher end amplifiers will require a speaker cabinet, as they do not have an integrated speaker. The amplifier itself amplifies the electronic signal, that is picked up by the pickups and transmitted via the quarter inch cable, and then sent to the speaker and played back much louder than the initial sound created by the guitar itself.
  10. So just about everyone has played, or at least seen someone play a guitar before. But how does it work? Well in general, it's a pretty simple concept. You strum a string, or multiple strings, which creates a sound wave that enters the sound hole and is amplified inside the body when the sound waves enter the body and resonate within the wood. In order to get this to sound nice, however, the guitar needs to be tuned. In order for this to happen, several factors must be taken into account, suck as the mass, length, and tension in the string. when the guitar is in tune, the strings should each vibrate at a specific frequency. The A string should vibrate at a frequency of 110 Hz, and from there the other strings can be tuned to their respective frequencies. For example, the big E string can be tuned by pressing down on the A string (which should already be tuned to 110 Hz) at the 5th fret, and matching the frequencies. Tuning must be done often for several reasons, including the strings stretching out under the tension, the tuning pegs slipping, or even something as insignificant as a change in temperature, since we know that speed of sound changes based on the temperature. also, the design of the inside of the guitar, and even everything down to what kind of wood the body is made out of can affect the tone and overall sound of a guitar. Here is a video of a guitar being made to give a better idea of what exactly is going on inside the guitar. As you can probably tell, guitars are significantly more complicated than they appear on the outside, and a considerable amount of physics goes into them at every stage, from the basic design, to final materials used, to even every day use and tuning.
  11. Does this apply to other coins, or just wuarters?
  12. People have been putting things in microwaves since they've been invented, and some of those things, should have never gone in a microwave. But why do some things react so violently when put in microwaves? As far as metal goes, a microwave moves around charges in metal, and can result in a spark, possibly causing other things in the microwave to catch on fire. It's also not a very good idea to microwave an airbag, because they have the potential of going off. There isn't much scientific research inot this one, but if I had to take an educated guess, it probably involves the previous issue of metal in the microwave, possibly causing a fire to start inside the airbag, resulting in a pressure build up, and engage the airbag.
  13. But Sam, is it a good idea to microwave this?
  14. So how heavy would a backpack have to be to literally break your back?