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  1. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Red-er Rover : Pre-Launch Team Name: WUV Our Work Available Funds: $1,048,666 Vehicle Name: “Red-er Rover” Vehicle Parts List and Cost: RoveMax Model M1 (x4) - 450 Cubic Octagonal Strut (x7) - 16 EAS-4 Strut Connector (x18) - 42 RV-105 RCS Thruster Block (x8) - DISCOUNT 310 Mk12-R Radial-Mount Drogue Chute (x4) - 150 Mk2-R Radial-Mount Parachute (x4) - 400 Communotron 88-88 - 1500 SP-W 3x2 Photovoltaic Panels (x2) - 440 Z-200 Rechargeable Battery Bank (x2) - 360 OX-STAT Photovoltaic Panels (x2) - 75 Probodobodyne HECS - 650 FL-R10 RCS Fuel Tank - 200 TT-38K Radial Decoupler - 600 AE-FF3 Airstream Protective Shell (3.75m) - 1,104 FL-R10 RCS Fuel Tank - 200 Rockomax X200-16 Fuel Tank - 1,550 RE-L10 "Poodle" Liquid Fuel Engine - DISCOUNT 650 Rockomax X200-32 Fuel Tank - 3,000 Rockomax Jumbo-64 Fuel Tank (x2) - 5,750 RE-M3 "Mainsail" Liquid Engine - DISCOUNT 6,500 S1 SRB-KD25k "Kickback" Solid Fuel Booster (x8) - 2,700 TT-70 Radial Decoupler (x4) - 700 Structural Wing Type C (x4) - 300 Delta Wing (x4) - 600 Rockomax Brand Adapter (x2) - 550 Advanced Nose Cone - Type B (x8) - 320 TOTAL COST: 77,118 Design Goals: Our goal is to land a rover on Duna. To do this we need to be able to dramatically slow down in a considerably thinner atmosphere. Launch Goal: We are hoping to learn how to effectively land and maneuver a rover on Duna’s surface. Milestone: Land a Rover on Duna - $2,000,000 Pilot Plan: Launch and begin angling rocket at 20km Adjust rocket to achieve circular orbit Reach escape velocity out of Kerbin orbit Plan/execute an encounter with Duna Land softly in the thin atmosphere
  2. The Space Race between both the USSR and the United States is by far one of my favorite eras of history to study. They say competition is the perfect motivation, and I truly believe, from a technological standpoint, this is era is a prime example of that motto in its purest form. Some of the biggest strides in human history were made in a time where computers were still the size of rooms all due to fear, curiosity, and drive. Public Service Broadcasting’s album, “The Race For Space”, tries to capture all of these emotions, during a handful of critical points, along this journey in order to show how important this period was for Humanity as a whole. (I will cover the tracks in event order not track order) Track 2: Sputnik The year is 1957, and, as tensions of the Cold War are ever increasing with no end in sight, humanity has its eyes on the one place neither power has even traveled: space. The Soviets, ever fearful of the United States launching into orbit, rushed through their plans to launch a 3,000 pound satellite equipped with various scientific instruments. They ended up downsizing dramatically to a 184 pound payload with a 58 centimeter diameter without any instruments. On October 4th of that year it was launched on a R-7 rocket with four stages. It nearly suffered a catastrophic launch failure, but the a combination of engine thrust and wing movement saved it last second. Well what did it do? It beeped. And that beep was the beep heard all around the world. Well at least for 22 days… its batteries actually exceeded the expectation of 14 days. For the first time in all of human history something was able to orbit the earth. It wasn’t the first man-made object in space, but it was the first which was in continual free fall around the earth. So, yes, the Soviets to prove themselves put a beeping piece of metal into orbit because that is all they needed to do to stir so much amazement and fear. The device whose name directly translates to “travelling companion”, would be the spark which set the both countries ablaze and straight into the most heated technological race in all of human history. Track 3: Gagarin It is now April 12th, 1961. Multiple years have passed since Sputnik, but no shortage of tests and animals had been launched into space, including the famous cosmonaut dog Laika on Sputnik 2. Now it was time to push the barrier forward onto man's reach into space. Enter Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin. A 27 year old Senior Lieutenant Gagarin was chosen out of over 200 Russian Air Force fighter pilots by peers and project heads due to his exceptionally quick thinking and attention to detail. At 9:07 A.M. Vostok 1 took off carrying Gagarin on board. Due to the feared consequences of free fall, the Russian mission control was totally in control of the craft the entire time. Yuri was the first human ever in space, a true high water mark achieved by humanity. His trip lasted one obit, a total of 108 minutes. While the United States press showed fear of losing the space race, he was seen in many places as a hero for humanity, going on a global world tour to be paraded around countries including England, Canada, and, of course, across the USSR. This stance of him being a pioneer, regardless of national affiliation, is what PBSB was aiming for in their upbeat track. Looking back now it is easy to say he was a true pioneer for all of humanity and his efforts will forever go down in history as that of a hero. Track 1: “The Race for Space” The date is now September 12th 1962. President Kennedy is making a speech to 40,000 people in Rice Stadium. At this point, the United States is far behind in the space race launching the first American, John Glenn, nearly a year after Gagarin. Kennedy knew he needed to rouse the American spirit, and, in effect, his speech became a defining speech in American history. A link to the full speech can be found here: https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/ricetalk.html. Perhaps one of the most ambitious technological proposals made by a president, Kennedy promised that by the end of the decade America would put a man on the moon. Keep in mind no spacewalks had been taken, lunar modules had been made, no docking sequences had even been practiced, and here was the nation’s leader saying we could make it in 8 years or less. The National Defense Education Act had been passed due to Sputnik and had been in effect since October 4th 1957. Now its efforts of acting as a booster for the mathematics and science related fields was beginning to see results. Young engineers and scientists began coming out of Universities in order to rapidly increase the nation’s technological investments to bound ahead. This key moment not only left the nation space crazed, but made getting to space a budgeted objective at the front of the nation's interest. This vow and critical commitment is what would pave the way for the American Space program to come, as now Americans all over had their eyes on the skies. Track 7: “Valentina” Fast forward to June 16th, 1963, Vostok 6 is launched. It is the last in the man orbital missions launched by the USSR starting with Gagarin. Well what made this so different? This time the passenger was Valentina Tereshkova. Yes, the first woman in space. Her mission lasted 3 days and she kept two way radio communications with Voltok 5 which was orbiting with her. In this time she made 48 orbits, which was quite a large feat at the time. Her personal background was that of an avid skydiver and textile factory worker making her the first civilian in space as well. The space suit she wore was the MK-2 which was very similar to the MK-1 that Gagarin wore. These suits were only meant to be pressurized in an emergency, such as if the cabin was punctured. It would take a better space suit in order to do an EVA which is the coming up milestone. Up until this point, humans have remained within their pressurized cabin in order to take a safe trip, but now we move onward and upward by finally getting out of the restrictive hull. Track 5: “E.V.A” On the 18th of March 1965, the Voskhod 2 mission was launched. Two cosmonauts were abroad: Pavel I. Belyayev and Alexey A. Leonov. Belyayev was the primary pilot while Leonov was the secondary, but he had a far more important mission. He was to perform the first E.V.A trialing the first space suit with a life support system in the backpack. The flight lasted 26 hours and made 16 orbits. During this time the first spacewalk lasted approximately 20 minutes with Leonov claiming the experience gave him a sense of complete euphoria and tension at the same time. The mission, being reported as a major success, acted as a dramatic blow to the United States government. At the same time, many catastrophic failures occurred while in space, but were never reported on the ground. A few moments after Leonov stepped out of the shuttle he realized his suit had inflated to the point he could not get back in. He needed to decompress, and as he let out oxygen he began feeling the initial symptoms of decompression sickness. He began pulling rapidly on the cord thrusting himself in with a moment to spare, but at his current temp he was at risk of heat stroke. His perspiration blocked his view so he had to maneuver around the airlock blind. He eventually did it and made it back in to the safety of the shuttle. This was only the start of the problems though. Due to this maneuver the oxygen content of the shuttle soared, meaning any single spark would have it blow up as quick as a flash. They managed to lower the oxygen concentration back to a safe levels. The ultimate test occured when they had to manually re-enter the atmosphere due to engine problems. They were exposed to high G forces along with high temperatures only to land off course in Siberia. They were eventually recovered and hailed as heroes. This was yet another large step to making it to the moon with the United States still lagging behind. And they were soon to have one of their largest hardships to date. Track 4: “Fire in the Cockpit” On the 27th of January 1967, an event which would live in national infamy occurred. The Apollo 1 space crew, comprised of Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee, all entered their command module to undergo a simulation for their up and coming launch. The first problem arose when Grissom complained of a “sour smell” in the spacesuit loop, but decided to continue the test. This was followed by high oxygen flows triggering on and off the alarm. This wasn't resolved as the communications were experiencing problems resulting in the line being only between pilot Grissom and mission control. At 6:31, oxygen levels quickly rose as Chaffee casually says he smells fire, but within two seconds, White proclaims, “Fire in the cockpit.” Escape procedure was supposed to take ninety seconds, but ultimately that time frame was too long. In the highly oxygenated environment, the fire spread too quickly, followed by the command module rupturing forcing black smoke across the landing pad. An eventual investigation found that the fire was started by a faulty bundle of wires located behind their heads. It took firemen three minutes to quell the fire and to open the doors, but it was too late all three perished. It was a day of national remembrance and an overall low in the American Space program up until that point. Their sacrifices were distinguished with the highest regard as the nation mourned and tremendous loss. Track 8: “Go!” Apollo 11 is by far the most known aspect of the space race. It is the moment where scholars say the United States sealed their place as the winners of the space race. It inspired kids for years to come to become astronauts. The Apollo 11 mission’s ultimate goal was to land the first man on the moon fulfilling Kennedy's earlier promise and legacy. Apollo 11 launched on July 16th, 1969 with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin. It took 75 hours to reach lunar orbit. This is where the focus of the song is. It includes a systems check as the lander makes it's landing maneuver and lands on the surface. The utter tension at mission control was palpable. This was the most critical part of the mission, and when they landed, from the utter joy heard over the radio, the public knew they had finally done it. Tee descent began at 102:33 with the ultimate touchdown resulting at 102:45. After a period of set up and a postponed rest period, Armstrong made his exit onto the surface at 109:24:19 to utter those famous words. Aldrin soon followed behind with the whole thing being broadcasted to the American Public. This moment, the moment where America gathered around their television screens to watch them be the farthest away from anyone else that any human has ever been, was the height of the space race. They made their return launch starting at 124:22 and plunged back into the Pacific Ocean on July 24th. These pioneers set the standard of human exploration in the space age and acted as role models for new explorers for years to come. Track 9: “Tomorrow” The last track of the album is of course the most inspirational. It focuses around Apollo 17, which was the last manned mission to the moon. it was launched on December 7th, 1972 with crew members Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Harrison Schmitt. It's main objectives were to put a Rover on the moon, conduct testing, and take samples such as moon rocks and photographs. In total over 16 hours of EVA were conducted, 30.5 kilometers we're traversed by the rover, and 243 pounds of samples were collected. The mission was a success but extremely bitter sweet being the last mission in the Apollo chapter. It ultimately completed the era of the Space Race. It has much more sentimental value in this aspect, as the track takes the time to reflect on the previous decade and a half of progress and how far the human race has come. Ultimately the space race was a period of history where nations gathered behind the scientific progress they conducted. Yes, there was always the fear of mutual destruction, but the sense of shared awe at what humanity achieved far overshadows that factor when looking back at history. There are not many periods of history where technology progressed at such breakneck speeds, and may not be for a long time. There is plenty more to read about the period, and I encourage you to do so if this interested you at all. As always it had been a pleasure! This is ThePeculiarParticle, signing out. Informal Bibliography Esa. “The Flight of Vostok 1.” European Space Agency, European Space Agency, www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/ESA_history/50_years_of_humans_in_space/The_flight_of_Vostok_1. “The First Spacewalk.” BBC, BBC, 2014, www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/2014/newsspec_9035/index.html. Larimer, Sarah. “'We Have a Fire in the Cockpit!' The Apollo 1 Disaster 50 Years Later.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 26 Jan. 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/01/26/50-years-ago-three-astronauts-died-in-the-apollo-1-fire/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.7d4feb08cec3. “NASA.” NASA, NASA, www.nasa.gov/. “National Air and Space Museum.” The Wright Brothers | The Wright Company, airandspace.si.edu/. RFE/RL. “Kennedy's Famous 'Moon' Speech Still Stirs.” RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, 13 Sept. 2012, www.rferl.org/a/kennedy-moon-speech-rice-university-50th-anniversary/24706222.html. “Space.com.” Space.com, Space.com, www.space.com/. “Sputnik Spurs Passage of the National Defense Education Act.” U.S. Senate: Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, 9 Mar. 2018, www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Sputnik_Spurs_Passage_of_National_Defense_Education_Act.htm. (Disclaimer the websites were used many times for different articles)
  3. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Funding Edits: Due to funding oversights by myself there have been a few budget miscalculations along the way. Edit 1: On our mission to Minmus we achieved the milestone of First Kerbal EVA when Fuelanov planted our country's glorious flag adding $30,000 to the budget. Edit 2: On our mission to the North Pole we recovered our jet giving us $7,075 back to the budget as those parts could be reused. All future posts will have these edits accounted for in the budget. For an up to date budget, follow the link here: https://westiron-my.sharepoint.com/:x:/g/personal/anwansha18_students_westiron_monroe_edu/EfWKC_ov9kVDo4giHAAUnHgBukrl6RQxDKN7JG0jJ4B_pQ?e=dp7pJn.
  4. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Pole Mission : Pre-Launch Team Name: WUV Our Work Available Funds: $925,741 Vehicle Name: “C.R.A.S.H” (Country of Rocketslovia’s Atmospheric Ship for the Homeland) Vehicle Parts List and Cost: UFO Plane Part Details Part Name Quantity Price Shock Cone Intake 1 3,050 Mk1 Liquid Fuel Fuselage 2 550 Mk1 Inline Cockpit 1 1,600 Delta-Deluxe Winglet 4 600 Structural Pylon 2 125 CR-7 R.A.P.I.E.R. Engine 1 6,000 Tail Fin 1 600 LY-10 Small Landing Gear 2 600 LY-05 Steerable Landing Gear 1 150 Mk2-R Radial-Mount Parachute 2 400 TOTAL COST: 14,150 Design Goals: Our goal is to reach the UFO lodged in the northern ice caps. We need a lot of fuel and need efficiently use it within the atmosphere to reach the North Pole. We also need to figure out the coordinates on the map of the UFO or at least the general area. Launch Goal: We are hoping to learn how to effectively fly a jet and locate the UFO crashed in the ice. Milestone: Picture of UFO on northern ice cap of Kerbin - $100,00 Pilot Plan: Launch off the runway Through trial and error reach the altitude which we most efficiently use our fuel Reach marked point on map where we placed the UFO Descend and land on the ice caps Walk to the UFO and place a commemorative plaque on it
  5. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Thank you Fizziks Guy! It was a true team effort. Mun Lander : Pre-Launch Team Name: WUV Our Work Available Funds: $468,537 Vehicle Name: Red Rover Vehicle Parts List and Cost: (Oh Boy) Mun Rover Part Details Part Name Quantity Price Probodobodyne HECS 1 650 FL-R10 RCS Fuel Tank 1 200 FL-R1 RCS Fuel Tank 1 1,800 RV-105 RCS Thruster Block (DISCOUNT) 12 310 OX-4L 1x6 Photovoltaic Panels 2 380 Ox-STAT Photovoltaic Panels 2 75 HG-5 High Gain Antenna 1 600 Z-200 Rechargable Battery Bank 2 360 Cubic Octagonal Strut 8 16 TT-38K Radial Decoupler 1 600 RoveMax Model M1 4 450 AE-F22 Aerstream Protective Shell (2.5m) (with Custom Fairing Cost) 1 1,045.00 Rockomax X200-8 Fuel Tank 1 800 Rockomax X200-32 Fuel Tank 1 3,000 Rockomax Jumbo-64 Fuel Tank 2 5,750 RE-L10 "Poodle" Liquid Fuel Engine (DISCOUNT) 1 650 RE-I5 "Skipper" Liquid Fuel Engine (DISCOUNT) 1 2,650 RE-M3 "Mainsail" Liquid Fuel Engine (DISCOUNT) 1 6,500 Structural Wing Type C 4 300 AV-T1 Winglet 8 500 EAS-4 Strut Connector 4 42 Rockomax Brand Decoupler 2 550 TOTAL COST: 42,796 Design Goals: Our goal is to put a rover on the mun. We need a lot of liquid fuel and need our design to effectively lay our payload down on the surface without damaging it. We also need a rover which can be controlled with wheels as well as with monopropellant if something bad happens. Launch Goal: We are hoping to learn how to effectively put a rover on the Mun. Milestone: Working Mun Rover functioning on Mun - $500,000 Pilot Plan: Launch to 20 km above Kerbin and begin angling west Burn until our apoapsis is 90 km above Kerbin and drift until this point Make our orbit circular at this point Plan/execute encounter with the Mun Center the Mun at our periapsis and slow until 20 km above the moon Stop horizontal motion, land, and slowly eject rover onto the surface Our proud Rocketslovian rover shall do doughnuts around the craters on the Mun... FOR SCIENCE!!!!
  6. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Minmus Round Trip : Pre-Launch Team Name: WUV Our Work Available Funds: $196,181.00 Vehicle Name: Gnorts Mr. Alien (read it backwards) Vehicle Parts List and Cost: (Oh Boy) FL-T800 Fuel Tank (x10) - 800 FL-T400 Fuel Tank - 500 EAS-4 Strut Connector (x16) - 84 FTX-2 External Fuel Duct (x4) - 150 Advanced Nose Cone - Type B (x4) - 320 AV-T1 Winglet (x8) - 500 AV-T1 Winglet (x2) - 400 LT-1 Landing Struts (x3) - 440 Illuminator Mk1 (x3) - 100 Kelus-LV Bay Mobility Enhancer - 100 Pegasus I Mobility Enhancer (x2) - 440 Heat Shield (1.25m) - 300 FL-R25 RCS Fuel Tank - 600 OX-STAT Photovoltaic Panels (x2)- 75 Mk12-R Radial-Mount Drogue Chute (x2) - 150 Mk16-XL Parachute - 420 Mk1 Command Pod - 600 TT-70 Radial Decoupler - 700 LV-909 "Terrier" Liquid Fuel Engine - DISCOUNT 195 LV-T30 "Reliant" Liquid Fuel Engine (x4) - DISCOUNT 550 LV-T30 Liquid Fuel Engine - DISCOUNT 600 RV-105 RCS Thruster Block (x4) - DISCOUNT 310 TOTAL COST: 27,519 Design Goals: Our goal is to either land on Minmus and come back. We need a lot of liquid fuel in order to make it back from Minmus. Launch Goal: We are hoping to learn how land on a celestial body. The easy part is getting off Kerbin while the hard part is... landing on Minmus... escaping Minmus' gravitational influence... and landing back on Kerbin... in one piece. Well at least we know it is doable. 👍 Milestone: Landing on Minmus (+ safe return) - $300,000 Pilot Plan: Launch to 20 km above Kerbin and begin angling west Burn until our apoapsis is 90 km above Kerbin and drift until this point Make our orbit circular at this point Plan/execute encounter with Minmus Center Minmus at our periapsis and slow until 20 km above the moon Stop horizontal motion, land, and extend ladder down to surface Our proud Rocketslovian Kerbal Fuelanov will walk around and plant our glorious country's flag and a spontaneously created quote. Fly up and escape gravity of minmus Center Periapsis with Kerbin 40 km above so air resistance will slow us down Fuelanov returns home a hero
  7. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    The following spreadsheet keeps track of of WUV Our Work's Funds, and it will be continually updated. https://westiron-my.sharepoint.com/:x:/g/personal/anwansha18_students_westiron_monroe_edu/EfWKC_ov9kVDo4giHAAUnHgBukrl6RQxDKN7JG0jJ4B_pQ?e=dp7pJn
  8. ThePeculiarParticle

    WUV Our Work 2018 Missions

    Geosynchronous Satellite: Pre-Launch Team Name: WUV Our Work Available Funds: $30,000 Vehicle Name: Pride of Rocketslovia Vehicle Parts List and Cost: AE-FF1 Airstream Protective Shell (1.25m) - 300 EAS-4 Strut Connector (x2) - 84 RV-105 RCS Thruster Block (x4) - 2,480 TVR-200 Stack Bi-Coupler - 400 AV-T1 Winglet (x6) - 3,000 Z-200 Rechargeable Battery Bank (x3) - 1,080 OX-4L 1x6 Photovoltaic Panels (2x) - 720 Probodobodyne Stayputnik - 300 FL-R25 RCS Fuel Tank - 600 FL-T400 Fuel Tank - 500 FL-T800 Fuel Tank (x4) - 3,200 TR-18A Stack Decoupler - 400 HG-5 High Gain Antenna - 600 LV-909 "Terrier" Liquid Fuel Engine - DISCOUNT 195 LV-T45 Liquid Fuel Engine (x2) - DISCOUNT 1,200 TOTAL COST: 13,944 Design Goals: Our goal was to place a working satellite into geosynchronous orbit which is archived when the space craft is at an altitude of 2,863.33 km above Kerbin while the craft is flying at 1,009.81 m/s. Like the original space race, our country has a lot to loose but everything to gain, even if that means putting a small beeping bit of metal into space just to intimidate rival countries and agencies... I mean just look at what Sputnik did. To achieve this we needed a large amount of liquid thrust to reach the atmosphere, we wanted multiple stages to allow us to deploy the satellite, and the satellite needed the required equipment to charge and broadcast signals of the Glorious Rocketslovia to our side of the planet. Launch Goal: We are hoping to learn how much liquid fuel it requires to get into higher orbits, along with how easily space flight paths can be manipulated to get within the designated range we need to become geosynchronous.The milestones we wish to break are: Launch to 10 km - $10,000 Achieving stable orbit - $40,000 First working satellite placed in stable orbit - $80,000 First working satellite placed in geosynchronous orbit - $100,000 (THE BIG ONE) Pilot Plan: We plan to launch vertical until 20km where we will begin angling west at 5 degrees and adjust as necessary. We will then reach 100 km, where we shall coast to our first apoapsis. We will then adjust our orbit to reach out to our desired radius from the earth (2,863 km). We will have a burn and then drift to said apoapsis, where we will then make the required adjustments to our speed and flight path to expand it into a more controlled orbit with a constant radius and speed. At this point we can decouple the satellite and we will have mission success. This is the plan at least. The good news is it is looking like a great day for a launch here on the launchpad, with our launch planned for 10:46 AM.
  9. ThePeculiarParticle

    Crash Course on Logic Gates

    Have you ever wondered how systems around you function? Like a passing glance at the thermostat and wonder how it maintains the temperature in your house. Well, just like any other system dealing with variables, there has to be logic to tell how other systems should work. In electrical systems, one of the most basic forms of logic comes through chips known as logic gates. These gates appear on chips, like the one below, where each prong serves a certain purpose. These chips can vary in size, holding a number of gates, but for our purposes, we will look at one with only four. VDD represents a pin needing to be connected to a voltage source, usually five volts, and Gnd means the pin needs to be connected to ground. The input pins follow the two paths leading into the same end of a gate, while the outputs are represented through single paths. This specific chip is made up of NAND gates which is shown by the shape the pathways lead into and out of. The main types of gates are referred to as “and”, “or”, and “not”. These gates then have multiple variations I'll discuss below, but these are the basics. Now, how does a circuit relate to logic, I hear you ask. Well, for simplicity, let's assume a circuit either has a voltage of zero or five volts. The zero volts is represented with a 0 and the five volts is represented with a 1. These signals go into a gate, converting it into a designated signal (also a 0 or a 1), used to cause another action. Below is a table showing the input and corresponding outputs of each gate. An example would be if I had two inputs, one in the form of a switch and another in the form of a light sensor. I want my cabin to turn it's lights if I hit my switch and it is night time out. When I turn my switch on it sends out a 1. When the sun goes down the light sensor sends out a 1. When both these signals reach an and gate it sends out a 1 to the light inside my house to turn on. Needless to say, there are systems with hundreds, even thousands, of variables and programmable logic controllers can store strings of gates onto one single chip, but that's a story for another time. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  10. ThePeculiarParticle

    The Physics in Album Covers

    Physics is all around us, and sometimes it is so visually awesome that it can make for great album covers. Pink Floyd: The Dark Side of the Moon One of the highest selling albums of all time, and having one of the most identifiable covers of all time, Pink Floyd should rightfully start up this list. The phenomenon shown is called dispersion of light. This occurs when white light hits an optically permeable surface. In this case, white light is hitting a prism. As white light passes through the prism, all the different components of white light separate by wavelength. This occurs due to each wavelength having a different angle of deviation. Shorter wavelengths, such as violet, have greater angles of refraction than longer wavelength colors, such as red. The result is a splay of colors each aligned in a rainbow to their corresponding wavelengths. Joy Division: Unknown Pleasures Another cover which can be easily recognized, or at least will be noticed, is Joy Division’s debut album. What you are actually seeing is a visualization of radio waves from a pulsar, in fact the first pulsar ever discovered. A radio pulsar is a neutron star which is spinning at incredibly high speeds. So this star, with a density ten trillion times denser than lead, is also generating a strong magnetic field from moving electrons. Due to this spin, electrical charges, and magnetic field, a radio signal was received at 1.337 second intervals. The picture above depicts eighty successive periods stacked on top of one another, and was taken straight from The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy published in 1977. Despite being in earlier publications, the true creator of the design is not know, but if one thing is for sure, the image can still be found everywhere and this usage in 1979 was only the beginning of its use in pop culture. The Strokes: Is This It The cover to The Strokes Is This It was chosen for release of the 2001 album due to its beautiful psychedelic appearance. But what is it? Well, it is a picture taken from inside a bubble chamber. A bubble chamber is used to study electrically charged particles. How it works is that large bubble chambers are filled with incredibly hot liquid hydrogen. As the particles enter the chamber, a piston opens decreasing the pressure in the chamber. Charge particles created an ionized track which vaporizes the hydrogen creating visible bubble trails. Since the hydrogen is transparent, pictures can be taken in all three dimensions, mapping out the movements of the particles. So why is a different bubble chamber photo my profile picture? Well it has nothing to do with The Strokes. It's just a beautiful image, and that's what made most of these artists choose their own covers. Nature is beautiful in many ways, and being able to explain it with physics makes it just that much more enjoyable. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  11. ThePeculiarParticle

    Third Quarter in Review

    No doubt the course has gotten much harder in the transition to electricity and magnetism. The result is that I've needed to adapt a new approach to the course. I have tried watching videos then filling in my notes with information from the book and vice versa. For me watching the videos first worked much better. So, if anyone finds this blog, I'll certainly recommend that. But one of the most important things I can do is look back at the course and experience as a whole, despite having induction left, and say I wouldn't have it any other way. It's like climbing a mountain and, while it seems like a heavy task at first, the top is now in sight, with a bit of work left. The most exciting part of this year, besides writing these blogs, had to be finally finding where all these formulas came from, such as how work and forces are so interconnected now that we understand integrals and derivatives. The good news is that it only builds on from here. Well, my group agreed we would do a blog post sharing our future endeavors, and I'm happy to say that I will be attending the University of Rochester to pursue Optical Engineering. It specifically interests me in the area of integrating electrical and digital circuits but, since optics is such a wide field, that can only be compared to dipping my toe in the deep end of an Olympic sized swimming pool. This course has probably prepared me the most, compared to any other course, for what to expect in college, and for that I'm immensely grateful. Thank you FizziksGuy. The road isn't over yet but this year has been a large stepping off point into the next and I can't thank you enough for the help. This is kinda sad, being one of the last assigned blog posts I do, but it is not the end. There will be one more after this, which I am really excited for, and I will post a couple in fourth quarter. I legitimately love writing these and need to thank all of my readers and those who gave support, and even criticism, as this was one of the most fun projects I have had this year. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  12. ThePeculiarParticle

    What Is The Deal With Theremins?

    Anyone remotely into science fiction has heard the sound of a Theremin at least once, from its use in most 50’s movie to a variety of later Star Trek and Doctor Who sounds. It has been the sound of the future since its creator Leon Theremin unveiled it in 1928. Before I explain, what it is it is important you see what it looks like in use. For reference the Theremin playing begins at 1:00. So how does this machine work? Well, this connects back to our unit on capacitance. The human body has a natural capacitance, so when it moves into an electric field it can disturb it. In a Theremin an electromagnetic field is created by a radio frequency oscillating circuit. The two terminals are connected to two different circuits. The circuit connected to the vertical antenna is connected to a variable oscillator which can produce a range of frequencies, making the player’s movement in the vertical plane control the pitch of the instrument. The horizontal terminal has a fixed oscillator which generates waves at a constant frequency. A hand in the horizontal plane controls the volume of the output. When these two signals are “mixed” and amplified, the result is the haunting pitch you hear above. This instrument paved the way for the electronic era of instruments to come, so looking back, it is always important we acknowledge our roots. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  13. Sorry for the clickbait, I’m just trying to beat The Night King at his own game. The truth is I am just going to tell you what wireless charging is. Sorry to disappoint, but I don’t have a global conspiracy. I won't do it again. An emerging technology, which every company Samsung to Tesla are trying to jump on board with, is wireless charging, but believe it or not, this technology has been around since the 1960s. It’s called induction charging, and, as given by the name, is works through induction. So how does it work? Well, a magnet with a coil of wire wrapped around it is called an inductor. Just as a capacitor stores voltage in an electrical field, when current is run through the wires of an inductor voltage is stored in a magnetic field. Put a device which has another induction coil, within the magnetic field, and the energy will be transformed back into current charging the battery. So why is such a simple technology just coming into our houses now? Well, for one, powerful enough magnets and small enough electronics are now becoming cheaper and more readily available by the year. Before, what took a magnet the size of a loaf of bread, can now be put into a charger that sits nicely on top of your nightstand. Its earliest usage within the home was actually in bulky electric toothbrushes, but now companies have a variety of wire free applications. One of the more talked about use of the technologies is how modifications can be made to Tesla Model S so that it can wirelessly charge by parking over designated spots. So what are the drawbacks? Well induction charging is usually 75%-80% as efficient as wired charging, so times to charge are usually slower. No to mention, charging rates drop off further the farther the coils are separated. The efficiency decreases usually by square inverse ratio. The usage of resonant inductive coupling can make this distance much greater, but the final problem is cost. The charging stations alone for inductive chargers are more expensive, not to mention, only the latest lines of devices seem to support wireless charging, and, if you are anything like me, you will not be paying top dollar just to get a bigger screen and a cool charging pad. In the future, however, I can see this becoming a new norm for phones, as not wearing down and needing to fix a charging port is always a nice additive bonus for consumer and supplier. So be sure to look for this technology in the future. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  14. ThePeculiarParticle

    On The Topic of Pole Reversals

    Based on a variety of evidence, the last time the Earth's magnetic poles flipped was 750,000 years ago. Going off of this, many sources say we could face another flip at any point. Now, before you panic and begin blasting REM out of the nearest speakers, I just wanted to fill you in on what the process looks like. The process is much longer than most people think when first visualizing it. It is actually a process which is estimated to take 1000-10000 years. To explain why, the main factor behind the Earth's magnetic field is believed to be the liquid iron part of the Earth's core. The alignment of iron and it's flow creates a magnetic field surrounding the Earth. As the iron won't all realign in a matter of days in the transition period, Earth's field appears to grow weaker as orientations move, then multiple different poles may form, until eventually the poles are reoriented and effectively flipped. Will this cause confusion for many electrical systems, animals, and humans? Yes. One of the biggest dangers, however, is the lack of a strong magnetic field protecting Earth from harmful solar flares, which could wipe out modern electrical systems as a whole. This is a very real fear, with a severe storm occurring in 1859 known as the Carrington Event. This storm, even with a fully functioning magnetic field, managed to destroy large amounts of telegraph communications and caused auroras so strong they were seen in the Caribbean. While strong storms like this are rare, weak ones are fairly frequent. So, if the poles were to weaken, even the effects of a weak storm would be very destructive. Humanity would certainly not be the same after a direct hit. Anyways, don’t panic, much of this is out of anyone's control anyways, besides, even with this threat looming over our heads, we continue to make scientific progress without hesitation, and, like any other hardship, we keep our heads up and move forward. So, to sum it up, the poles won't just flip one morning and be switched the next, it is a process which takes numerous lifetimes. As always thanks for reading! - ThePeculiarParticle
  15. ThePeculiarParticle

    Circuit Software in the Classroom

    Shown above is an example of a simple circuit designed using circuits.io through Tinkercad. During class this quarter, I began thinking how a software I once used could be integrated into a lab for students to be able to experiment with electrical components inside, and outside the classroom. The one I specifically have in mind is circuits.io. I began using this for a digital electronics class in 10th grade and it soon became a valuable tool when tinkering. The only thing that has changed is that you now create and edit circuits through www.tinkercad.com. Being able to create circuit and test whether it will function correctly, before you damage components, is a useful tool when trying to conserve components. You can check voltage, resistance, current, and capacitance within a circuit very easily using tools provided. The user interface is very simplistic and appealing (no spaghetti wires). Also, the inclusion of Arduino simulation is great for tinkerers to test out and write out code without having the physical board on them. While students would not encounter experimental error they would find in the real world, I still believe it would be a valuable tool to help them comprehend the ideal functions of certain components in circuits. I also have not mentioned the best part yet… ITS FREE. This software is definitely a hidden gem which I could see being used in the classroom in the future for not only Physics C, but all physics classes, and I encourage anyone who is mildly curious to sign up for an account and check it out.

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