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ThePeculiarParticle

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ThePeculiarParticle last won the day on November 6

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About ThePeculiarParticle

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  1. Momentum in Sports

    Congratulations!!! That was an awesome game to watch! I feel like, in volleyball, having smaller teams on such large courts makes it one of the hardest sports to change momentum in, especially if the team members start getting in their heads. From what I saw last night though, it was obvious you guys had no problem shaking things off and moving onto the next play. That definitely puts your team above many others regardless of skill. I wish you guy the best of luck moving forward!
  2. Musical Chords: C and C# vs. C and G

    Whenever I see saw waves I cant help but think of the synth pioneers and how much the synth has affected music since the early 70's. It's a truly unnatural sound. If you ever wish to check out another example of the "futuristic/robotic" sound you were describing in action, check out the original Blade Runner OST.
  3. Supersonic speed

    This was a very interesting blog post. I just wanted to add that there was one commercial airline that went above the speed of sound that I can think of off the top of my head. It was retired in 2003 and was known as the Concorde. It flew at Mach 2.04 (1354 MPH) and could hold up to 128 passengers!!!! It was known for crossing the Atlantic Ocean from NYC to London in 3.5 hours. It was definitely a more expensive option than most flights, but could hold large numbers of people. The engineering behind it is fascinating from its drooping nose, to the structural expansion and compression it needed to withstand, and how it endured high temperatures. If you are interested, there are a lot of great videos on the science behind it on YouTube. I agree with you totally on your point that if Mach travel can be achieved commercially, and most importantly cheaply, then a new age of transportation will begin. Who knows, maybe you can be the guy to figure it out.
  4. A Haunted Blog Post

    Question: Was the smurf put in the box before or after the bottles? In all seriousness, this is a awesome post with an interesting idea behind it! Good job keeping it holiday themed as well.
  5. Waves are Wavy

    There is a very interesting phenomena I saw in a video recently where olive oil is used to calm a lake's surface. It works on the principle that the oil thinly coats the lake's surface and the wind does not have the same amount of "grip" on the surface as it would water due to a lack of friction. The result is a calm lake under windy skies. Video:
  6. Newton's Second Law Lab

    Our group took far too long on this lab as well, and had the exact same problems. We also made a mistake our first time collecting data, but it worked itself out. We learned the exact same lesson, so don't worry, you are not alone.
  7. What Is This and Why Is It Important?

    Thank you FizziksGuy! It sounds like you have a lot of passion for the field. I look forward to talking with you and hearing about your past experiences.
  8. The Portal Gun

    This is a very interesting blog post, but can you please explain why the moon rocks are so important for this process? I'm asking for a friend who currently works for Black Mesa.
  9. Pokeball vs Pokemon

    So, knowing that Onix has a mass of 210 kg, and the volume of a Poké Ball is .000134 m^3, and say this monster could magically be compacted into that space without any damage, then the density inside that filled Poké Ball is 1,567,164.179 kg/m^3. Besides needing to carry a 210 kg ball around everywhere there is another problem. To put that in perspective our sun's inner core is calculated to be 150,000 kg/m^3. YIKES... there must be another way they need to be stored without carrying around a pocket nuclear fusion reactor.
  10. What is Onix Made Of?

    I was a fan of Pokémon for a very brief time as a kid, but it stopped the same summer it started. So, when a recent post went around about an Onix’s size compared to a Pokéball, courtesy of etracey99, I was a little interested in the subject. I began wondering, what exactly is this rock monster made out of? The answer shocked me. In order to do this, we need the density of the Pokémon. The first step is to find the volume of this behemoth. To do this, I gathered information such as that it is 28’ 1’’ in length. Now this is nice, but since it is made up of a series of boulders, I can’t easily calculate the volume like a cylinder. Instead, I made the assumption each part of the Pokémon was a uniform sphere. I know it is an estimate, but just remember it is an animated monster so please just relax. Anyways, from the picture above, some string, and some guess work, I calculated the diameter of a single bolder to be the length of Brock’s leg. His height is never given, so, knowing that the average height for a 15 year old is 5’ 7’’, it can be estimated that the diameter of a single rock is 33.5 inches. From there the length of the Onix at 28’ 1’’ can be converted to 337’’, and divided by 33.5’ to give us a rounded 10 whole boulders which make up the body. The volume of a single boulder is 19,684.89 in^3, so, multiplying by ten for each bolder results in a total volume of 196,848.9 in^3. This seems like a lot, but when translated to metric it results in 3.22577 m^3. Now, as for the mass, we can get this information from the official Bulbapedia which etracey99 used to gain his information. The mass is 210kg, which seems very low, but I used it in my calculations anyways. The calculation for density is mass/volume so plugging in (210kg)/(3.22577m^3) resulted in a density of 65.1 kg/m^3 . Now came the time to look it up, and the results shocked me. The closest values it came to were sawdust (64.1 kg/m^3), carbon black powder (64.1 kg/m^3), peanut shell refuse (64.1 kg/m^3), and talcum powder (64.1 kg/m^3). So there you have it, the rock Pokémon made out of BABY POWDER!!! The science doesn’t really give any closure here. It just proves that things are not always what they seem, but then again, I’m a student trying to rationalize a rock monster. As always, thanks for reading! –ThePeculiarParticle
  11. What is Onix Made Of?

    Thanks etracey99! Yea, that may be a good idea for the future... In the meantime, I will cover some other subjects because the last thing I want to be known on here as is the Pokémon density guy.
  12. A Quarter in Review

    To sum up this quarter, it has had ups and downs, but gladly a majority of it was ups. The biggest lesson I learned is that, while this is an applied calculus class, it is more of a learned calculus class because so much calculus is used in physics before it is learned in the classroom. The best thing to compare it to is a special kind of road trip. You know where you are starting and the final destination and, most importantly, why you need to get there, but the second you look down at your road map, you remember you can’t read, understand symbols, and heck, the road map hasn’t even been fully unfolded yet. The good news is that you have the resources to figure it out. I remember watching the educator video on air resistance and the use of differential equations and integrals to a level I hadn’t seen before, and while it honestly left me kind of fuzzy, it was a lot of fun knowing that’s where we were going. I can understand why it can be somewhat jarring, but as a class I know we have the persistence and resources to figure this out. We have the textbook which gives an overview of these principles, the educator videos which can give overviews and practice, the internet is basically an open book where we could self teach ourselves, we have other students, and the man who wrote the textbook is our teacher. This brings me to our next point. Many people look at this class and see how independent it is. After the first quarter, I’m going to have to disagree with that statement. The support and cooperation of other students in the class is more than I have seen in any other class, both inside and outside of the classroom. If someone takes this class thinking it is meant to be fully independent they will fail. Just remember, there are others to help and deadlines… lots and lots of deadlines. Thanks for reading-ThePeculiarParticle
  13. A Sonic Boom of Light

    That standard blue glow associated with radiation has much more behind it than meets the eye. This phenomenon is called Cherenkov radiation. The blue glow is a result of particles moving faster than the speed of light. “WAIT THEY CAN’T DO THAT! STOP LYING! OH THE HUMANITY!” I hear off in the distance. Yes, in certain circumstances it is possible. We learned last year about the refractive index which is a ratio of velocity of light in a vacuum ( c ) which is 3x10^8m/s over how fast it can travel in a medium. The equation is shown below: The larger the n value, the slower light moves in a certain medium. In water, which is common in most reactors, light travels at 75% of the speed it would in a vacuum. As a result of this, certain particles such as electrons which are shot off as a result of nuclear fission can move faster than light in the particular medium. The result is like a jet as it flies and creates a sonic boom from over lapping sound waves. The photons emitted by the water collect behind the moving electron and give off a blue light. The animation bellow shows what it looks like in action. So, this is not new information to change science as we know it, just a natural behavior which gives off an unnatural glow. As always thanks for reading. - ThePeculiarParticle
  14. What Causes Friction?

    So, we always talk about the coefficient of friction in dynamics, but we don’t talk about what causes it. The truth is there are multiple factors. The one most people think of is based upon how rough a surface is. Coarse grit sandpaper requires more force, and takes more material off an object, than fine grit. The same idea applies to smooth objects on a much smaller scale. Even something as smooth as the surface of a polished table, on a much smaller scale, has ridges and valleys. These imperfections are known as asperities (such an odd vocabulary word) and look similar to this. The top shows asperities between two objects before a load (force) is applied and the bottom shows after. These ridges and valleys are shaped in a way so that they oppose the movement in the direction the force is being applied. This seems pretty intuitive, but then there are instances of smooth surfaces sticking together, such as gauge blocks or wafers. I remember hearing about how gauge blocks could be “stuck” together and measured for more specific tolerances, but never understood why. Well the answer is a result of how they are made. Both gauge blocks and silicon wafers are polished very accurately for their uses, resulting in an extremely flat surface. The result is that the asperities are very limited leaving the contact between the two materials at a maximum. Van der Waals forces then take into effect if limited material or residue is on either surface. To sum up the effect, atoms have electron clouds, and while we ideally picture them as uniform, they naturally are not. One side will have a slightly greater negative charge and the other will have a slightly greater positive. The surrounding atoms, will align themselves negative to positive resulting in a “sticky” force between them also known as London dispersion force. It is also important to mention each individual electron cloud’s orientation is momentary, but across all atoms there are enough places where it occurs for the resulting force to be noticeable on a macro scale. This animation shows Van der Waals force in action. So, while the rougher a surface becomes the more friction it can have, the same can be said for how smooth a surface is. This is a very basic overview of what I learned, and I’m sure there is even more science behind these things the higher up you go, and I’ll see if I can update this, but consider this an overview. I also found a very interesting related video which will be linked bellow. As always thanks for reading – ThePeculiarParticle
  15. What Is This and Why Is It Important?

    What is this? Over the summer I participated in Photon Camp at the University of Rochester with a few classmates. It was an awesome experience by the way! The main reason I’m here is to talk about the project I worked on in a group of 4. Each student had a different project. So, if you need an idea for a blog post, there you go. My group was studying photolithography which is the process of creating patterns using light. We worked with Professor Bryan McIntire and were able to go into the clean room and actually perform the process on a series of silicon wafers coated in the photoresist. The first step was to coat the plate in primer, which applied via spin adhesion, so that a layer 1.4 micrometers thick was evenly spread across the surface. Then it was time to perform the actual process. The main component which allows this process to work is the photoresist. There are two kinds: positive, which breaks down when exposed to light, and negative, which polymerizes when exposed to light. We used a negative photoresist when exposing our wafers to light. We performed two different processes when exposing them. In the first, UV light can be run through a mask, projecting the image of the mask onto the surface coated in the photoresist. The other option was to laser-write, by placing the wafer under a 405 nanometer laser, exposing the wafer in a designated pattern. The chemical structure of the photoresist is changed, becoming soluble and then is washed away, revealing the Silicon Dioxide layer underneath. The etching process is next, using Hydrofluoric acid to wash away the Silicon Dioxide. Afterwards, the wafer is washed with Acetone, removing the protective layer, and showing the true colors of the wafer. If the piece is multiple layers, then Hydrofluoric Acid would be withheld and another layer of Silicon Dioxide can be placed over the first layer to act as a base layer for photoresist to be applied onto. In the final step, the Silicon Dioxide between layers is removed, leaving only silicon, creating the final product. So why is this important? Large amounts of energy and money go into cooling the information systems we use on a daily basis. As internet usage increases so will the amount of facilities and power needed to support this. It is theorized this system will not be viable in the future without breakthroughs in energy production, but photonics may promise another solution. Using photonics to transmit information does not create nearly as much heat, causing many scientists to look to it as a way to alleviate the dependence on energy used to cool electronics. The process of making technology more compact is hindered greatly by the amount of transistors which would be located on an integrated circuit. A concept referred to as Moore's Law states that the amount of transistors on a given area for the same price doubles every two years. The process of photolithography is the next step in this process as the resolution achieved using smaller wavelengths allows for a dramatic increase in the concentration in the amount of transistors placed. The resolution achieved by EUV radiation can be 18nm. Looking further past this, in order to get an even better resolution, a process using an electron beam would be needed. Photonics may hold the solution to the problem it has created. Equation for resolution (how small the patterns can be) R~ (Wavelength)/(Numerical Aperture) Here are some pictures of the wafers we made: This is the first plate which we made light channels on. This image shows two waveguides(light tunnels) converging. Each waveguide measures 2 microns across. Some professors use this to study how light rays behave as they get close to one another. This is the second plate that had a series of patterns etched onto it in order to create different types of diffraction gratings. These dots were made by drawing lines 5 microns wide and are the same ones shown in the first image of this blog. This picture shows the edge of a horizontal diffraction grating. And finally this is the third plate which the universities crest was etched on. Thanks for reading, and if you have any younger siblings interested in the camp I highly recommend it! -ThePeculiarParticle

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