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baseball00

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  1. baseball00

    Orbital Recap

    Launch Time: 6:44.91 Team Members Present: All present and partaking Play-by-Play: At the beginning Bill Kerman boarded the rocket Launch Meat and and was strapped in. Then once the weather cleared, the boosters ignited along side the rockets main engine and Bill oriented the rocket towards the east. The boosters were dropped when they ran out of fuel. As the rocket traveled, it neared an apopsis of 80,000 km Bill Kerman turned off the throttle and began to coast towards the altitude of 80,000. Upon reaching the apopsis, Bill turned the engine back on full throttle to burn the last of the fuel in the first stage. Then the first stage detached and fell back towards Kerbin, and Bill fired up the second stage to reach orbit. Photographs: Each launch should be accompanied by a minimum of two photographs from the mission. Screenshots may be made by pressing the F1 key at any time during the mission. If an award is achieved, make sure you take a screenshot as proof of the accomplishment. Time-of-Flight: 9:22 Summary: In this launch team F'N Sandwich and pilot Bill Kerman achieved a stable orbit. After many failed tests, this goal was reached as our greatest milestone so far. Going forwards, we have learned that a greater heat shield will be required as the one used during this launch was damaged. Opportunities / Learnings: We learned that practice makes perfect and how to maneuver the rocket in the ways and orientation that we want. It gives us the confidence to move towards a moon landing or satellite launch. Strategies / Project Timeline: This launch will set in motion missions of greater complexity. We aim to either put a satellite in orbit around Kerbin or put a Kerbin on the moon. Milestone Awards Presented: We achieved a stable orbit and a stable manned orbit, and a launch to 50 KM for $20,000 $25,000 and $10,000 respectively. Available Funds: We have $68,508 remaining prior to the possible $60,000 in rewards for our achievements.
  2. baseball00

    Can We Please Get to Orbit?

    Pre-Launch Design Release Team Name: F'N Sandwich Available Funds: $80,183 Vehicle Name: Launch Meat Vehicle Parts List and Cost: MK-16 parachute- $422 MK-1 Command Pod- $600 7 FLT-200 Fuel Tanks- $1925 2 TR-18A Stack Decoupler- $800 2 TT-38R Radial Decoupler- $1200 FLT-400 Fuel tank- $500 2 Rt-10 hammer solid fuel boosters- $800 LVT-45 Swivel liquid fuel engine- $2400 4 AV-R8 winglet- $2560 2 aerodynamic nose cones- $480 Total Cost: $11,675 Design Goals: This rocket was designed to send a Kerbal into orbit around Kerbin. Two booster engines helped to gain speed and our swivel engine helped us maneuver the rocket to the east to reach orbit. Launch Goal: We are hoping to put a Kerbal into a stable orbit around the planet Kerbin. If we succeed we will earn the achievements of an successful manned launch to 50 km, a stable orbit and a stable manned orbit. Is successful, our group will earn $60,000 from these milestones. Pilot Plan: First Bob Kerman will ignite the booster engines and the swivel engince to gain speed. He will then angle the rocket towards the east to position the rocket in the correct orientation to leave Kerbin. He will then wait apoapsis to reach 80 km and then shut off the engines. Upon nearing an altitude of 80 km, Bob will re ignite the engines to push the rocket into orbit. Illustrations:
  3. baseball00

    10 km Flight Recap

    Launch Time: 3 minutes and 29 seconds Team Members Present: All team members were present to bare witness to the launch. Play-by-Play: The swivel engine was engaged and the Jebediah Kerman for the first time in his career lifted of the surface of the planet Kerbin. The first stage burned, propelling the capsule to around 7000 meters. The first stage was then was dropped and the capsule used its momentum to reach a final height of just over 10 km. As the rocket then fell back towards home, the parachute was released to slow Jebediah down and return him alive and safe back to Kerbin. Photographs: Time-of-Flight:3 minutes 3 seconds Summary: this mission over saw a successful launch of Jebediah Kerbin to an altitude of 10 km. He was returned safely and said that he enjoyed his time, and that he was Erika Nash in a costume. The mission earned our group $15000 for an initial investment of around $5000. For our next launch we plan to use this achievement to drive the design and launch of more complex rockets and missions. As to the next launch we must be more attentive as towards the timing of stage releases as well. Opportunities / Learnings: We learned the proper timing for releasing the parachute so that it doesn't break or release to late, risking the lives of innocent Kerbals. Strategies / Project Timeline: This launch has given our group the confidence to make the next step towards a 50 km launch and a stable orbit around the planet Kerbin. The success of this launch gave us the funds to experiment with more engines and controls to improve our designs and launches. Milestone Awards Presented: Successful 10 km flight for $5000 and a successful manned launch to 10 km for $10000 Available Funds: Before any rewards for launch our current money supply is at $65183
  4. baseball00

    10 km flight

    Team Name: F'N Sandwich Available Funds: $70,000 Vehicle Name: PB&J Vehicle Parts List and Cost: MK1 command pod : $600 MK16 Parachute: $422 TR18-A Stack Decoupler: $400 Fl-T200 Fuel Tank: $275 "Swivel" Engine: $1200 AV-R8 Winglet * 3 : $1920 Total: $4817 Remaining: $65,183 Design Goals: This vehicle is designed to reach an altitude of 10 km. It is built to be small and efficient. Launch Goal: We expect to reach 10 km. We also aim to achieve a successful manned launch of Jebediah Kerman and return him back safely. Pilot Plan: The pilot will begin the launch with ignition of the swivel engine and fly straight up to an altitude of 10 km. Upon decent at an altitude of 1500 m, the pilot will activate his parachute to come to a slow and controlled landing. Illustrations:
  5. baseball00

    What Does the Gold Foil Experiment Mean?

    The gold foil experiment is the famous experiment conducted by Ernest Rutherford that we all learned about in chemistry class. This experiment proved that atoms are made up of mostly empty space. In fact 99.9999% of an atom was proven in this experiment to be empty space. Lets say we could eliminate all that empty space by condensing the parts of an atom together. How much weight could we fit in a small space such as a single teaspoon? Over a billion tons! This idea is common when studying astronomy. At the end of a stars life, it collapses and explodes in a supernova explosion. The remaining mass that the supernova leaves over is so dense that the star begins to collapse in on itself. As a result of this, electrons fall into the nucleus and smash into protons becoming neutrons; hence the name neutron star. This animation shows a star going through a supernova explosion. The accuracy of this animation is highly questionable but it certainly looks cool.
  6. baseball00

    The Doppler Effect

    The Doppler effect occurs in everyday life more often than you may think. It is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave relative to a moving observer. In this animation a car has sound waves that it is emitting. As the car starts to move the wavelength of the wave becomes smaller on the side of the car that it is moving toward and larger on the side that it is moving away from. An observer on the left side of this car would hear it gradually become higher pitched. An observer on the right side of the car would hear it gradually become lower in pitch. The Doppler effect is true for light waves as well. This is wear the terms red-shift and blue-shift come from. Blue light has a higher frequency than red light; therefore if an object appears to be becoming more blue that means it is moving toward you. If an object appears to be turning more red than it is moving away from you. This is only noticeable on very large scales like when observing space. Because of the Doppler effect, scientists have determined that our universe is expanding since most objects in space are red-shifted relative to earth.
  7. baseball00

    Refracting vs Reflecting Telescopes

    The first telescope to be invented was a refracting telescope. A refracting telescope works by using converging lens to collect light. A refracting telescope has a convex lens that bends the parallel light that is coming into it to a focal point. That focal point is where an image is formed of what is being observed. At that point is the eyepiece that you look through to see the focused image. This diagram shows the inside of a refracting telescope. A reflecting telescope was invented after that refracting telescope by Isaac Newton. A reflecting telescope works by collecting light and reflecting it off of a concave mirror. The light that is reflected comes to a focus point where a flat angled mirror reflects that light up toward an eyepiece where the viewer sees the image. This diagram shows the inside a reflecting telescope.
  8. baseball00

    Magnetism

    Our latest unit in Physics was learning about magnetism. A magnetic field occurs when charged particles are moving. According to greek legend magnetism was discovered by a Shepard in a field as he suddenly felt a force of attraction coming from the ground as he wore shoes with iron on the bottom. The substance he found later became known as magnetite, after the place it was found, Magnesia. Another common magnetic substance that was well known was lodestone. This was used in ancient China by the first emperor to protect his palace. Huge blocks of lodestone were placed outside the entrance. This was meant to attract soldiers in armor so they were prevented from entering the village. In ancient Egypt magnets were used for entertainment by doing (non) magic tricks. They would place objects above a magnet so that they would repel so the object would seem to be floating in mid-air. It wasn't until the 1500's that magnetism was scientifically investigated by William Gilbert who discovered that the earth itself is a magnet with a magnetic north pole and south pole. Not too much later came Friedrich Gauss and Charles Coloumb, where our understanding of magnetism became less of a mystery. In 1861 James Clerk Maxwell used equations to relate magnetism and electricity.
  9. baseball00

    MLB opening Day!

    Major league baseball opened up the season this week and there were some exciting stats and physics involved in the 11 games that were played on Thursday the 29th. Here are some of the great physics highlights of opening day. Giancarlo Stanton hit 2 home runs on his yankee debut. One of his home runs leads the league, so far, in exit velocity off the bat: 117.4 mph. With a launch angle of 19.8 degrees, its projected distance traveled is 426 feet. Jordan Hicks of the St. Lous Cardinals has the fastest pitch of opening day at 101.6 mph. At this speed, Hicks produced a spin rate of 2,233 rpm. While this ball had a great amount of kinetic energy, it also had a large amount of rotational kinetic energy as well. The highest spin rate of 2,649 rpm was thrown with a 99.2 mph four-seam fastball by Aroldis Chapman. The farthest home run of the season so far is by Matt Adams of the Washington Nationals. He hit the ball 460 feet with a velocity of 109.3 mph and launch angle of 28.6 degrees. Physics is always relevant in baseball. Throughout the 2018 season there will be a lot more exciting stats while it is only the beginning.
  10. baseball00

    Electric Motors in toothbrushes

    Want to make brushing your teeth even easier than it already is? Try using an electric toothbrush that uses an electric motor to rotate the brush back and forth to scrub your teeth better than ever. How does it work? On all the electric toothbrushes there is a battery at the bottom. This is used for a source of voltage which creates a current. As the current goes through the circuit, it reaches a point where it experiences a magnetic field. This creates a force upward on the circuit causing a net torque in the clockwise direction as shown in the diagram. As the circuit rotates 180 degrees, the direction of the current switches; therefore, the direction of the force switches, so it turns around the rotation. This back and forth motion gets transferred to the brush which is why it is so effective in making teeth super clean and white.
  11. baseball00

    Is Math Invented or Discovered

    Anybody who has ever taken a physics class knows that math plays a very essential role in solving problems that explain the laws of the universe. The question is: has math always existed and waits for us to discover it, or is math our own invented logic? There are many mathematical phenomena that are mysteriously found to come up in nature such as the Fibonacci sequence, and the numbers e and pi, that would be evidence of math being a preexisting language of the universe that we are continuing to discover. There are also some people that would say numbers are just a way for our conscious to understand how things work. Aliens might not know what math is but still have there own unique way that they understand the universe without using numbers in any way what so ever. The argument can go both ways but one thing is for certain: for humans, math has never failed us in our journey in studying the universe, so whether it is made up or not, it works!!
  12. baseball00

    Superionic Ice

    Water and ice molecules on earth have a distinct molecular structure that gives it the properties that it has; however, under different surrounding pressures, the molecular structure can change, resulting in the formation of superionic water. Superionic water differs from the ice/water you and I know so well. "Regular" ice has molecules that form a V shape with two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. As pressure increases, these atoms get squeezed into different shapes. A property that superionic ice has is that it is a conductor of electricity; however, unlike most conductors, the current is carried by positively charged ions instead of negatively charged electrons. This substance was just a theoretical idea until recently when the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser tested the theory and was successful in creating superionic ice. They knew this was a success because the molecules were able to conduct electricity. Due to the opaque color of the molecules when electricity was ran through it, it was determined that it was, in fact superionic. If it had a shiny look to it, the researchers would have known that it couldn't of been superinoinc because that would mean that negative electrons were carrying the current. The pressures that were applied to the ice by the laser were almost 2 million times the atmospheric pressure of earth. This is the amount of pressure that planets Neptune and Uranus have.
  13. baseball00

    Escape Velocity and Black Holes

    Every massive object in space has an escape velocity. Escape velocity is the minimum velocity an object must have in order to escape the gravitational strength of a particular planet or any large body in space. The earths escape velocity is about 11.2 km/s. This means that an object must travel 11.2 km/s to escape its orbit around the earth. Reaching this velocity is a very big challenge when dealing with space travel. The more mass a body has, the more gravitational attraction it has; therefore, the escape velocity becomes faster. A black hole's escape velocity is so high that nothing can escape its gravitational pull; not even light. That is why its call a "black" hole: there is no light coming out of it so you can't see in it. A black holes escape velocity must be greater than 300,000 km/s (the speed of light). How can in object have this must mass to generate this much gravitation? When a star reaches the end of its life, some of them collapse all the way down to a single point, maintaining it's mass. This means that it becomes infinitely dense. Our sun does not have the potential to eventually become a black hole because it is too small. Stars that become black holes are 20 times the mass of the sun.
  14. baseball00

    Super Bowl LII

    Super Bowl LII is nearly 2 hours away. The Patriots and the Eagles are both great teams with lots of talent. Not only will I be watching the game, but the physics of the game as well, being a physics student. Some things worth taking note of are the kinematics of kicking a field goal, the forces that are felt while getting tackled, the kinematics of deep passes made by Tom Brady and/or Nick Foles, among many others. The minimum height needed to complete a successful field goal is 10 feet. A typical field goal is kicked anywhere from 30 - 40 yards away from the goal post. Depending on how windy it is will determine the correct angle and velocity at which the ball should be kicked. Lineman can weigh up to 300 pounds, so running into them is not fun for running backs. When the defensive lineman start to charge over the line of scrimmage they posses a tremendous amount of momentum. While running backs also have the ability to reach a great amount of momentum due to there ability to reach very high speeds, they don't have the mass to match the linemen. Also when running backs come in contact with lineman it is usually at or behind the line of scrimmage, not allowing them to pick up a high speed to match the momentum of the large linemen. There is more than just throwing a ball up in the air really far when quarterbacks toss those amazing 60- 70 yard completions near the out of bounds line. Quarterbacks have to time it perfectly so the ball reaches the target at the same time the wide receiver arrives at the point where the catch is made. A successful completion all depends on the speed of the wide receiver and the trajectory at which the quarterback throws the ball into the air. Hopefully Super Bowl LII brings us lots of cool physics to observe.
  15. baseball00

    The Many World Theory

    The many worlds theory suggests that there are an infinite number of universes that exist outside of our own. This theory was developed by physicists studying quantum particles. In quantum physics some things can have properties of either particles or waves and there is no way to determine which one. This influenced the many world theory because in quantum mechanics things have a wave-particle duel nature, so each fate of a particle is carried out, but just in different universes. According to this theory you are not the only you. You are living in an infinite amount of universes, each with different possibilities of you. All the possible alternatives that ever existed in history exist in a different world. Anything that could have possibly occurred in our past actually did happen in a parallel universe. Many scientist refer to these universes as giant bubbles floating around in space as shown below.

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