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# Phys-X

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## Waffles are the best

Awhile ago in class, our table group got in quite a heated discussion on which breakfast food is the best. Now the other side, pancakes, tried their best to convince me of the qualities that make them better than waffles. They brought up point such as fluffiness, and taste, but they failed to ignore that waffles can also have both of these properties. The way to achieve these properties is the cooking time and the temperature. In order to get maximum fluffiness, cooking for a lesser amount of ti

## The World of High Performance Sailing

The world of sailing includes many different sub types including cursing, local racing, national racing, and high performance racing. Today I am going to talking about the very interesting world of high performance racing. The most known race in sailing is most likely the Americas Cup, for this race they used boats called AC 72's (pictured below).   Whats so surprising about these boats is the fact that they fly above the water using fins called hydrofoils. What makes this s

## The Serenity of Snow

If you live anywhere remotely cold, you have experienced one thing snow. With snow comes many things, terrible driving, ice, shoveling driveways, all not fun things. But if you have ever taken a walk through the woods on a snowy day, you will recognize one thing, or rather a lack of one thing, sound. The reason why it becomes so quiet when there is snow on the ground is due to the physical shape of a snow flake. Because there are so many snowflakes on the ground, there is a lot of empty spa

## The Physics of Hiking

In dinghy sailing a persons weight becomes a much bigger deal in sailing the boat and keeping it upright. As it gets windier out on the water more force is applied to the sail, and the boat is tipped, or heeled, over more. This is were the weight of the sailor becomes more important. In order to counteract the tipping force of the sail, the sailor needs to move their weight out of the boat to create a stable system.   In the picture above we can see that the sailor has to "hike" out of

## The Grand Tour

In this weeks episode (Episode 11) of The Grand Tour, a motoring show with the old presenters from Top Gear UK, there was a section in the show were physics played quite a big role in getting a shot right. In the shot they fired a car, assumed off of an air cannon, onto a boat. In order to do this somebody needed to calculate using kinematics how far the car would go given a supplied force. Taking what was shown in the show it is quite difficult to try and guess exactly how they did given t

## The Fastest Sailboat in the World

In my previous blog I talked about the world of high performance sailing, this involves racing around a course. But then there is the boats specifically designed to go as fast as possible in a straight line, the boat that currently holds this record does not look like your average boat, its only purpose is a single direction as fast as possible. Here is a diagram going into how it works. (Some is cut off, only image I could find that explained it and wasn't in french.) At the

## The Deathroll

In small boat sailing there is a type of capsize called the deathroll, and from the name you can probably tell that it is not the most fun thing to do. Let me start off with a picture of this looks and it will help with the of how this happens. Here we can see that is quite windy and that the boat is also on its side, not good. This can happen when one sails in a direction called "by the lee", this is when the flow of wind on the sail becomes reversed from the normal direction.

## Surface Tension of Water

In this picture above it can be seen that the gecko is standing on the water, but how? Well, in between the water molecules in this tank there are hydrogen bonds that connect the molecules together. What is surprising is that the gecko is able to stand and walk on the waters surface and not just stand on the surface. You can see that the water is 'bending' under the weight of the gecko and that the bonds in between the molecules have enough force to not break and let the gecko fall through.

## SR-71

The SR-71 was developed in the 1960's by Boeing. This was a revolutionary aircraft in that it could travel at Mach 3 speeds, or 3 times the speed of sound. This plane is quite strange because when it is sitting on the ground the plates of the aircraft don't meet up properly and the plane actually leaks fuel. The reason behind this design is since the plane flies so fast and so high up. At an altitude 80,000 ft the pressure on the metal on the outside of the aircraft is so little that the outside

## Speakers and Their Circuits

Not that long ago I came up with a fun project idea when I was bored. I had some spare speakers laying around and felt like a fun thing to do would to add them to my current speaker system to help fill the room with sound better. To do this I drilled small holes in the back of my current computer speakers and then connected some wire in parallel, I then ran this wire through the ceiling and then soldered the leads to the speakers. By connecting them in parallel I reduced the resistance of the ci

## Prince Rupert

There's a YouTube channel that I watch called SmarterEveryDay, in one of his more recent videos he used a slow motion camera to see how a bullet would effect a Prince Rupert drop. Before I talk about the video I will first explain what a PR drop is. How they are made is some molten glass is dropped into some cold water, creating an incredibly strong price of glass. However everything has a weakness, in this case it is the tail of the glass piece which is incredibly fragile. The hardness of the g

## PolyMagnets

In the E&M course we learned that there can never be a mono pole of a magnet. We can tell this because of Gauss's law for B-field. But a company has found a way to print different poles on the same surface, they do this by printing what they call "maxels" onto the surface of a magnet. The different applications for these could be magnets that attract to a certain distance and then repel once closer together. They can also make "short-throw" magnets that are extremely strong but only attract

## Physics of a Sail

Most people think that a sail works only in one direction, thanks in part to the tall ships of the past.  (these things) What appears to be happening here is the wind is just pushing the sails and then in turn pushing the boat forward. But what actually is happening here is a vacuum. As the wind fills in the sail it creates a high pressure system on the inside, the lack of wind on the front side of the sail creates a low pressure zone, and since systems move towards a lower pressu

## Pendulums

As we know through kinematics the period of a pendulum is determined by its length, by increasing the length of the pendulum the time it takes for one cycle gets a little longer. If we line up a bunch of pendulums in a row and just make each string a little longer than the last we can make a very cool looking pendulum wave. Eventually these pendulums will become out of sync and it will look like a mess, but they will follow a pattern and will eventually make the very satisfying wave fo

## NFC

In most modern smartphones there is a feature called NFC, which is short for Near Field Communication. This tech uses electromagnetic induction with two loop antennas and the information is transferred on a radio signal in the 13.56 MHz band. If a device approaches another device this is called peer-to-peer sharing and both of the devices generate RF fields to transfer data. But in the case of a NFC tag, the tag does not have its own power supply, therefore it uses inductance from the active dev

## Maglev Trains

In my previous blog post I talked about how the Hyper Loop worked, the maglev train works in a very similar manner just in a less efficient way. As seen above the train actually wraps around the track and 'floats' on the track by using magnets to pull the train up into the air to reduce any friction of the track. There is also a 'guidance' magnet to make sure that the train stays centered on the track and that it won't crash into the sides. As mentioned in my Hyper Loop blog air r

## Lifting a Boat

As said in my about me post, I like sailing, and let me tell you something there is a lot of physics in the sport of sailing. To start with the basic, I am going to talk first about getting the boat in the water. Often people keep their boats on trailers and lift them into the water every time they are going for a sail. This is no simple task as the particular boat I sail weighs in the neighborhood of 3,100 lbs (1.55 US Tons). To help with this problem there are cranes provided that w

## Kerbal Space Program

A fantastic game that has an incredible physics physics engine is Kerbal Space Program. At the end of Physics C we do get to play with this game, but I own the game and have had many fun times in it. The premise of the game is you own a space agency on the planet Kerbin (earth). You have to design rockets or planes that can power themselves taking into account of lift and mass of the aircraft. You also have to worry about how the atmosphere will effect the craft including the drag due to air res

## Ice & Land Sailing

As you know I have written many a blog posts about sailing. Now when it turns cold in the winter, normal sailing has to stop because of the ice. But some persistent people can't let sailing go over the winter. They take to the ice. What is so surprising about ice sailing is that the 'boats' go much faster than they do in water. And I mean a lot faster. The main explanation as to why the boats go faster is because of the drastic reduction in friction that occurs. The boats that are made

## Hyperloop

Some of you may know about the new development from the amazing person that is Elon Musk, the hyper loop, The new radical form of transportation could make trips from NYC to LA take under 4 hours. The ways this is possible is how the system will be operated in tubes that air will be sucked out of drastically reducing the air pressure and therefore reducing the air resistance the pod has to counteract. Another technology that the system will use is magnetic levitation, which is currently used in

## Huston we have a problem

On Friday September 16th our class was assigned the task to shoot a book with a ball. Some may say a very simple task, yet we failed anyway. Some problems that could have caused this failure was the lack of communication between everybody working alone, and also the lack of similar measurements. To redeem ourselves we were given the opportunity to redo the lab as a blog to get full credit, instead of a big fat 0. The ball was shot in the x direction at a rate of 4.64 m/s and in the y direct

## Football to the Face

On a youtube channel that you may have all seen at one time or another they have made a video about throwing a soccer or football at somebody's face. This channel, called The Slow Mo Guys, records things in slow motion. In this video they show a face getting hit by a soccer ball in supper slow motion. The cool thing about this is that you can see the inertia that the head holds and its resistance to movement from the soccer ball. The other cool thing that you can see in super slow motion is that

## Fly System

The High School recently put on a musical production called The Addams Family, for stage crew we had to build the set which includes something called a fly system. On this production we had many parts of the set on the system in order to fly them in and out. For instance one of the bars held an entire wall that was used as a backdrop that would only let in small spots of light to resemble stars. This was moved often as the scene changed from inside to outside a lot. The way that the fly system w

## Flopotron

A mad scientist over on youtube has made a monstrosity of an instrument, it is made of 2 scanners, 8 hard drives, and 64 floppy drives.... 64... The reason for all of these strange electronic parts is so that the creator can play many different songs. Now how do you get these parts to sing the sweet sound of music. Well first off what is music, it is a bunch of frequencies all put together to create harmonies that sounds good to the ear. This is exactly what the flopotron is doing, each dri

## Brachistochrone

A recent Youtube video from a channel called Vsauce caught my attention. In the video he mentions this line created by a specific set of geometric events. This line is quite special in its properties, if made into a 3D object it is the fastest path from one point to another. This is due to the perfect balance between distance traveled and velocity. In this video you can see the three different paths that are built, the linear path, the Brachistochrone path, and the 'extreme' path as th

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