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  1. In physics we assume that gravity is a constant. In fact we represent this constant with the letter g and the numerical value of 9.81m/s2. Almost everything we learned this year works on the assumption that gravity is constant on the surface of the earth. There is no reason to assume other-wise after all we don't just see objects floating randomly as we take a stroll down the street. We use physics and its assumption of constant gravity- on the earth's surface- to create a lot of our technology today. But what if gravity on the surface of the earth wasn't constant? Many of our technologies would be rendered useless while other would become very amusing. So here are some fun things to think about if we all woke up one day and gravity was no longer constant. When your alarm clock beeps in the morning waking you up for school there are many fates you may encounter. If the gravity was lower then 9.81m/s2 then you might not wake up in your bed at all. Instead you could be floating in your sleep. Just think about how much room you could save without the need for a bed! If gravity however was at a larger magnitude then 9.81m/s2 then you would be pulled down to the surface of the earth with greater force. If the force was great enough it could leave you immobile. Hey, I guess that means you don't have to go to school! Let go to the next phase of the day. Unfortunately, most mornings I have to walk to the school in the mornings. However with a smaller magnitude of gravity I could take less steps! Although similar to walking on the moon this process would take a lot longer. If gravity all of a sudden gravity shifted to a greater magnitude, even just lifting my foot off the ground would take tremendous effort. For those of you dieting I have both good news and bad news. A world in which gravity is always shifting means your weight is always shifting. Take note that its your weight and not your mass which shifts. Mass is a measure of the space you take up- how many particles. Weight is the measure of mass multiplied by gravity. If you were to stand in a spot of low gravity then you lost weight! however, take one step to the right and you've gained more weight in a single second then ever thought possible! Last scenario. You're in class at school and your teacher tells you to pass up your homework. In a situation with gravity of an extremely low magnitude you could argue, "I tried to do my homework last night but it kept pushing me away." In a situation with no gravity newton's 3rd law has a field day. This law states for ever action there is a opposite and equal reaction. As you try to touch you homework, your homework pushes back at you with an equal reaction. Due to the extremely low gravity the reaction might actually cause you be pushed away. Then gravity shifts to a grater magnitude and your teacher tells you to do your homework. In this scenario you simply complain, "The force of gravity was so strong that the force I exerted on my pen was not great enough. In this process of trying to create a force stronger then the force of gravity it seems I have sprained my wrist.... both of my wrists."
  2. Some of you may be familiar with Lupe Fiasco's song Kick Push. This song is basically about a skater boy who meets a skater girl and skate off into the sunset. Now I don't know a lot a bout skateboarding but I know a little bit about the physics behind it. Let start with part of the first verse: First got it when he was six didn't know any tricks Matter fact first time he got on it he slipped Landed on his hip and busted his lip For a week he had to talk with a lisp like thissss The average six year old is about 42 inches tall. When we convert this to meter we get about 1.07 meter tall. As the six year old falls his energy is converted from potential to kinetic energy. Let's say he when he tries to step on the skateboard he slips and fall. From the info we have we could calculate various things, but for now lets find the velocity at which he collided with the ground. vi= 0m/s Vf= ? d= 1.07 meters a= 9.81m/s2 t=? we can use the equation vf2 = vi2 + 2ad so vf2= (0m/s)2 + 2(9.81m/s)(1.07) when we calculate this we learn that he fall with a finial velocity of 4.5 m/s we can also find how long it took him to fall. t= √2d/a so t= √2(1.07m)/ (9.81m/s2) we find that he fell in .47 seconds Now we can end the story right here But shorty didn't quit it was something in the air Yes there is always something in the air in Physics. We usually refer to this as air resistance. But don't worry we will neglect for now. The impact it has on our data is so small that it is negligible. Yea he said it was something so appealing He couldn't fight the feeling something about it He knew he couldn't doubt it couldn't understand it brand it Since the first kick flip he landed Labeled a misfit a bandit cucump cucump cucump His neighbors couldn't stand it Doppler Effect!!! As the skateboarder moves away from the neighbors they observe this annoying sound with a lower frequency and lower amplitude. As he moves towards his neighbors house they experience this sound with a higher frequency and higher amplitude. Meaning the closer he gets the louder the sound is and the higher pitch the sound is. Yeah I can understand his neighbors frustration. So he kick push kick push kick push kick push coast And away he rolled jus' a rebel to the world with no place to go So he kick push kick push kick push kick push coast So come and skate with me just a rebel looking for a place to be So lets kick and push and coast So when the skater kicks they are increasing their potential energy. PE= mgΔh. By kicking his foot up the skater has increased their height of their foot. When he pushes the skater is creating a force. We know this because a force is defined ass a push or pull on a object. This force is what accelerates him. F=ma. or in other words a=F/m his acceleration is equal to his force divided by his mass. So if he is accelerating then his 'push' must be increasing because his mass is not changing. Lastly the skater coasts. This has to do with Newton's third law. There net force is equal to the force of his push subtract the force of friction. If there was no friction the skater would be able to coast forever. But because friction works in opposition to the force of the push over time the skater slows down. This is why he has to reapply this force with another kick and push.
  3. How was the universe created? Well as long as your guess isn't the Big Bang Theory your theory might be valid. The truth is that we have no idea what so ever how the universe was created. Some people believe in creationism- that the universe was created by a higher power. Those misinformed in the subject of Physics often believe in the believe in the Big Bang Theory. I however have always enjoyed the theory posed in the movie Men in Black. For those unfamiliar with this franchise it's basically about two guys - yes one of them is Will Smith!- fighting aliens and protecting the world. In one of the scene they show aliens playing a game of marbles which last for merely seconds. The marbles represent different planets spinning, colliding, expanding and so on. But before I explain why this is a plausibly although extremely unlikely theory I'll first explain why the Big Bang Theory is invalid. We can disprove the Big Bang theory wrong with the Doppler effect. According to the Big bang Theory there was a force inside the universe which caused the center mass to break apart in a big bang. The net force on this mass was zero and was not acted upon by an outside force because well according to this theory there is nothing outside the universe. This theory states that the force would cause the pieces to break apart and accelerate at a slower and slower speed over time. This would occur until gravity acted upon all these pieces and brought them back to the center mass to recombine. then explode in a big bang again. This process is infinite. However the Red Shift proves this theory wrong. We learned that due to the Doppler effect as something in motion moves away from the observer, the observer notices a lower frequency. By analyzing radiation from stars we discovered a shift towards the red end of the spectrum (lower frequencies). This means the stars are moving away from us while accelerating. This proves the universe is expanding. If the Big Bang Theory were valid we would expect to see the stars slowing down not accelerating or even moving towards us. Now back to the fun stuff. In the link below you can watch the Men in Black Clip I am describing. This scene can be interpreted many different ways but I see it as one galaxy is just a marble. Inside the marble there are billions of stars and planets. When this marble is rolled everything is set in motion. Then this marble collides with another marble another universe. This collision acts as the outside force which has caused our universe to expand or spread out inside the marble. because this collision is an outside force we would not expect the universe to contract again as the Big Bang Theory does. Lastly time is relative. the actual clip where the marble collides and spins only lasts for a few seconds. But because time is relative a few seconds in a game of alien marbles is millions of years inside the marble. here is the YouTube link of the men in black 'marble scene' http://youtu.be/OKnpPCQyUec
  4. Thank You! I had a feeling I mispronounced Lambda
  5. Siren are by far my favorite mythological creature. In traditional Greek mythology they are bird like creatures which live on an island. Their 'siren songs' cause sailors to become entranced and steer the boat towards the island whereupon they crash and became shipwrecked. In some myths the sailors would starve to death. In other myths they just simply drowned. According to other myths some sirens actually swooped up the drowning sailors dropped them onto the sharp rocks of the island and then feasted upon the sailors flesh.. Sounds fun right? In modern recreations sirens tend to resemble mermaids. Because being lured to your death by a mermaid is way better then being lured by a bird-woman right? Well no matter the type of siren you choose the physics behind your doom is still the same. When the sirens sing they are creating sound waves. A sound wave is a mechanical wave and therefore requires a medium to pass through. Lucky for the sailors air and water can act as this medium. So even while drowning you can still appreciate the enchantingly deadly song of the sirens. But what makes a siren song deadly? Using the idea of resonance as evidence we can assume that its the frequency at which the sirens sing their songs which give it its deadly touch. Resonance occurs when one object emitting a sound wave with a specific frequency cause another object to vibrate with the same frequency. So here's my theory. Sirens sing at a particular natural frequency. This frequency then vibrates our eardrums. Our eardrums send this wave to our brains to interpret. Our brains do so by creating chemical paths in our brains. This is true of all sound. Now I'll attempt to explain they mythological part. The natural frequency at which the sirens sing is stored in a chemical path similar to the path where we store our natural euphoria's. Therefore when the sound is translated and stored in our brain it is confused with this natural drug and has a hypnotizing effect. Cool side note: In physics the Greek symbol landau is used to represent wave length. here are some sirens names who have the landau symbol in them Greek Name Transliteration Translation Θελξιοπη Thelxiopê Charming Voice Θελξινοη Thelxinoê Charming-the-Mind Θελξιεπεια Thelxiepeia Charming Μολπη Molpê Song Αγλαοφωνος Aglaophônos Splendid Sounding Αγλαοπη Aglaopê Splendid Voice
  6. In the modern world file sharing is becoming more and more popular. For those who aren't familiar with the term file sharing it's the illegal downloading of music, movies, t.v. shows and other media blocked by copyright laws. Sometimes the quality of 'bootleg' movies and t.v. shows are pretty good. Other times the quality is just pitiful. Ever watch a movie where the sound doesn't match up with the movie? well you can blame physics for that one. When we watch a movie we are simultaneously processing two different waves. Sound waves are being emitted by the speakers while light waves are being emitted by the screen. well what are waves? A wave is a repeated disturbance which carries energy. However, sound is a mechanical wave- it requires a medium to pass through. If you're listening to sound through a speaker then the wave is using air as its medium. But a light wave is an Electromagnetic wave- it doesn't require a medium to pass through. Additionally, a sound wave is a longitudinal wave so the vibrating particles of the wave travel in the same direction as the wave velocity. While light waves are Transverse waves- the vibrating particles travel perpendicular to the wave's velocity. Now that we established that these waves have different characteristic you maybe be able to understand why they travel differently. At STP a sound wave travels at 331 m/s through air. While as you know light travels a lot faster. In a vacuum it travels 3 x 10^8 m/s. It takes precision to line up the sound and light waves so that they travel at the same velocity to the viewer. When a glitch in the movie occurs a delay in the sound or light waves occurs. If you're lucky they will both glitch at the same time. In this situation you only miss a portion of the movie. But lets suppose it's you're unlucky day and the sound glitches. There is a delay in the sound waves emitted from the speakers but none in the light waves. Therefore the rest of the movie you will see everything before you hear it. Yes. it's that frustrating moment where you can clearly see a persons mouth moving but have to wait 8 seconds to actually hear what they just said. the velocity of sound can only be changed by the type of wave or by the medium. In this situation you there for cannot change either. Unless of course you have mad skills. Ahh yes physics is the karma of illegal file sharing.
  7. One of the episodes of the cartoon Teen Titans go is called Power Moves. In this episode the titans combine their powers to create new moves. The purpose of this is to make their attack more powerful. In physics we learned that power is the work done over time. P= w/t In order to determined power we must also know what work is. Work is defined as the process of moving and object by applying a force. it is measured by the equation W= F x d One of the first power moves preformed is by Beast Boy (who has the power to transform into animals) and Cyborg (who is half human half robot) called centaur kick. They combine to defeat the villain Jinx. By kicking her Beast Boy and Cyborg fling Jinx into the air where she travels from the street to the side of the building across the street. In the next power move Raven, Starfire and Beast Boy combine moves in order to save cyborg. Robin, the leader of the teen titans is obsessed with combining his powers with cyborgs and moves himself into cyborg's body. They charge at cyborg and slice him in half right after Robing escapes. Everyone is astounded by this move but I have a secret to reveal. There was abstrusely no power in this power move because although it seemed like work was done there actually wasn't any. The power move did not move Cyborg. At the end Cyborg was still in the same exact spot as he was before the power move only you know in two pieces. since displacement equals zero when you multiply it by the force of the sword (no matter how great of a force) the W is zero and zero over any number (the time) is zero. In short this move was weak. The centaur kick had way more power.
  8. Although it is said Isaac Newton didn't really get hit in the head with an apple let's suppose he did. When people talk about this scenario they usually talk about , why that apple fell out of the tree. let's instead look at why all the other apples didn't fall as well. An apple has a mass of about .18kg And the branch which holds the apple up acts as a tension. When the apple is hanging there it is in static equilibrium. This means when you add up all the net forces the equal zero. As a result the two forces acting upon this apple must cancel out. So mg= T The force in which is holding the apple up must equal the force which is pulling the apple down. (to see the free body diagram of this situation see the attachment) fbd of an apple.doc We can solve for the force pulling the apple down by using mg. The mass of the apple (.18kg) x gravity (9.81m/s2) is equal to1.8N We now know that this is the force pulling the apple down so the force pulling the apple up is also 1.8N however this force is acting in the opposite direction. In order for the apple to fall to hit newton on the head the force forces could not equal each other. We know that gravity does not change so this wouldn't be the cause of a falling apple. However if the apple grew (increasing its mass to lets say 20kg) the force which the branch exerts on the apple would have to increase from 1.8N to 2N. If this did not occur than the force pulling down would exceed the force holding the apple up causing the apple to fall. Just think about it every single apple hanging from a tree is in a state of static equilibrium.
  9. A bunch of my friends and I are going paintballing after midterms for the first time. Paintballing is like a physics teacher's dream and possibly a physic student 's nightmare. Paintballing is basically all about projectiles. A projectile is an object that is acted upon by only gravity. This describes the paintball after it has left the paintball gun. Now I want to walk away from this outing with as few as bruises as possible. I want to figure out how far away I have to be from my friends in order to avoid being hit by the paint ball gun. This will also be the same distance I have to be in order to hit my friends with paintballs. Because lets face it paintballing isn't paintballing unless you hit someone. The average initial velocity of a paintball as it leaves a paintball gun is about 85m/s. My friends are about five feet and five inches which converts to about 1.65 meters. This is how high the paint ball is from the ground when starting. If I stand about 20 meters away will I get hit? We can start to solve this problem by listing our givens Horizontal Vertical vi = 85m/s vi= 0 vf = vf= d = 20 m d= 1.65 m a = 0 a= 9.81 m/s2 t= t= In order to solve this question we need to figure out if the horizontal distance is less than or greater than 20 meters. if it is less than 20 meters than I'll be safe. if it is greater than 20 meters well l wont be safe. We will have to start by solving for vertical time. Because time is the same vertically and horizontally we will then use this same time to solve for d horizontally. We can use the equation d= vit + 1/2at2 in order to solve for t vertically. First we must take notice that vi = 0 so we can simplify the equation to d= 1/2at2 Now we can rearrange this equation so that we are solving for t. t= √2d/a When you substitute with units and numbers you find that t= .58 seconds. Now we use this same equation d=vit + 1/2at2 to find d horizontally. This is how far the paintball will land. Take notice that since a=0 we can simplify this equation as well to d= vit when we substitute with numbers and units d= (85m/s)(.58s) we find out that the paint ball will travel 49.3 meters. Notice this distance is greater than the distance of where I am standing. In conclusion I am in trouble.
  10. Turn your head for a second and the world of babysitting quickly turns in a world of collisions. A collision is defined ad an event where two or more objects approach and interact strongly for a brief second. And well, my little brother and sister have a tendency to run into each other. A lot. Most of the time this results in a elastic collision otherwise known as a bouncy collision. In this type of collusion my brother and sister run into each other and then bounce apart. In this collision kinetic energy is conserved. My little brother weighs 35 pounds which converts to about 16kg and my little sister weighs about 40 pounds which converts to about 18kg. Now the average child runs at 2.5 m/s. However my little sister is very clumsy so she likes to walk slower at more of a 2m/s. Now lets make a MOMNENTUM TABLE!!!! If my little sister runs into my little brother who is standing at rest we can determine the speed at which my sister is flung backwards assuming that my little brother falls backwards at oh lets say .5m/s (See attachment) physics of babysitting.doc Pintial (kg x m/s) Pfinal (kg x m/s) Alexander 16 x 0 = 0 16 x .5 = 8 Alexa 18 x 2 = 36 18 x ? =18? Total 36 8 + 18? Now in order to solve for the final velocity of my sister we have to set the total initial momentum equal to the total final momentum. This action is legal thanks to the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM. This law stats Pintial=Pfinal. So 36= 8 +18? if we solve for ? we find the ?= 1.6m/s So my little sister is pushed backwards with a velocity of 1.6m/s after she collides into my brother. All thanks to the CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM!!!!!
  11. Homemade Yankies is a common holiday dish served in my family. Everyone in my family, from a young age, learns how to make this homemade pasta in sauce (with the option of homemade meatballs if you aren't vegetarian like me) The pasta has to be rolled into long strands where it's cut, boiled and then cooked in red sauce. However as a child and even now, I always hated rolling the dough because once I got to the end my hands would turn red and itch unbearably with heat. Later on I learned that this heat was created as a result of friction. Friction is a force which opposes motion. Static friction acts on an object at rest while kinetic friction acts on an object in motion. By rolling the dough, the object set in motion. Therefore in the case of dough rolling, kinetic friction is at work. This motion of the dough then opposes the source of the motion, my hands. When rolling the dough out, my hands replicated the very same motion you create when rubbing your hands together on a cold winter night. As a result of friction there is a lost of energy this lost of energy is in the form of heat. This phenomenon explains why my hands become warm with heat and irritated Towards the end I also tend to use more flour on the dough. When the dough is sticky it resists motion. This creates more heat because as you have to use more energy in order to roll the dough with your hands. When the dough is covered in flour the two surfaces are smoothened. Remember that only two things can change friction 1. the nature of the surfaces in contact 2. the normal force acting upon the object. So by changing the nature of the surfaces I can attempt to alleviate some of the friction while rolling the dough between my hands.
  12. Dog mushing is better know as dog race sledding and if you've seen snow dogs you know what i'm talking about if not......... I have no words for you..... but as quick summary it is a team of dogs( trained Eskimo dogs, Siberian Huskies<3 Samoyeds or Alaskan Malamutes) who pull a sled controlled by a 'musher'. And of course dog mushing = physics. The main connections are through velocity, acceleration, friction and force. On the sled at rest there is friction, and gravity pulling the sled down and the ground pushing the sled up. the dogs then act as a net force and pull the sled forwards, making the sled accelerate. The more mass on the sled (like the gear and the musher) means the more inertia you have. This can be bad in the idea that inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in velocity so too much gear can make accelerating a very difficult task requiring a greater force(meaning more dogs). Force =mass x acceleration meaning a team of ten dogs of equal mass traveling at twenty miles an hour will have more force than a team of ten dogs of equal mass traveling at five miles an hour. so a musher in a race focused on winning will use more dogs because with the added masses, the musher will have more force to overcome obstacles, such as snowy passes and hills.The additional weight of your gear will also cause the force of friction to increase between the ground and the sled which will slow down our acceleration. But friction can also be a good thing when you need to slow down for turns. The mushers actually build the sleds so that when they lean to one side the sled digs into the ground creating more friction to make sharp turns.But the friction in the front of the sled is still very low which allows the dogs to still be able to pull the sled around the corner. There is also a break on the sled the mushers can step on which digs into the ground too and allows for quick stops in emergencies So overall the musher who wins will be the musher who is physics savvy
  13. Hula hooping was a big part my childhood, I mean I literally had a gym unit on hula hooping in grade school. But ever wonder how it works? Well the answer is Physics.... big shocker there. The spinning of a Hula Hoop around a person's hips can be attributed to several forces (1) you as an upward force (2)gravity as a downward force (3)torque as a spinning force) and (3) friction which acts in opposition to torque..... The person moving their hips inside the hula hoop is exerting an upward force upon the hoop which is propelling it upward. This motion of pushing up and pushing out which is caused by the hula hooper's hips creates torque. Torque is a twisting, outward force not to be confused with the force of: twerk. Torque is needed in order to make the hula hoop spin around you. Or if you want to get fancy- it's the force needed to keep the centripetal force going. Another force involved in Hula hooping is friction. The friction between the hoop and the persons clothes and the air slows the hoop's spin down. So if you're terrible at hula hooping and you can't get those really fast spins going for a long time just blame friction. However, if you did this, you would be neglecting the fact that friction also helps keep the hoop in the air by acting in opposition to the force of gravity which pulls the hoop down. Now keeping all this in mind... let's talk sabotage. if you challenge someone to a hula hooping contest offer to provide the hula hoops and give them a hoop with a greater weight then yours. With more weight, the heavier hula hoop will be pulled down more then the lighter one and therefore need more torque to act in opposition of gravity in order to keep the hoop up. This heavier hoop will probably spin much slower then yours if you applied the same amount of force to the heavy one as you would normally to a light one. So the amount of force needed to keep the hula hoop spinning depends on the weight and mass of the hoop along with other factors such as how well it fits around your waist. You can also make sure their hula hoop is wayyy to big for their waist which will led to a slower speed then a smaller hoop because it takes more time to make a full spin around the hips. Or if you want to be extreme you can also travel to a planet with a smaller gravity then earth's and hula hoop there while making your opponent stay on earth. With less of a force pulling downward on your hoop you're sure to win. Sadly, the hula hoop will not spin forever, friction will eventually slow it down to a stop as it does to a rolling ball for example.(not to mention the fact that you would get tired of exerting an upward force with your hips).... But neglect friction, hula hoop with less gravity and sabotage your opponents hoop and you my friend are a HULA HOOPING CHAMPION
  14. Halloween should really be a celebration of physics. I mean you couldn't ring the doorbell without pushing it and this action right here my friends is called a force. And when the person opens their door they too are applying a force. Their door would choose to stay at rest but because it was acted upon by a net force- the person pushing it open- it opens instead. Now let's get to the most important part: the candy. When the person drops candy into your bag, the candy is in free fall. You can even calculate the final velocity of the candy as it hit the other pieces of candy in your bag. Lets suppose the person's hand is .10 meters above your candy bag. and since the candy is in her hands it starts with a velocity of 0. and since gravity pulls things down at 9.81 m/s2 this would be the acceleration if we call downward the positive direction. Using the formula vf2 = vi2+ 2ad we can substitute with units and solve to get the the final velocity of the candy vertically is 1.4 m/s. And we can also figure out how long it takes for the candy to fall to the bottom of the bag so you can hurry up and go to the next house using the formula, d= vit + (1/2)at2 which can be rearranged to t2 = 2d/a since our initial velocity equals zero. and when you substitute with units you will find that time =.14 seconds. Meaning it only takes .14 for the piece of candy to fall to the bottom of your bag. And you can thank physics that this candy stays in your bag. The force of gravity is pulling your candy down but the bag, the normal force and your arms which act as tension are acting in opposition to the force of gravity and preventing your candy from ending up on the floor. When you run door to door you are accelerating. And when you stop quickly so that you don't collide with the door you have a negative acceleration. and if someone ask you if walking 10 block to collect candy was worth it just tell them "what are you talking about i started at home and ended at home so really my displacement was zero so yeah it was worth it"
  15. Ever read a book? Well let me rephrase that for some people.... ever read a couple pages out of a book pretendding to read the whole thing for english class? Well guess what my friend, not only have you practiced Physics, but you demoonstrated Newton's 1st Law of Motion as well!!! When you open the cover you are applying a force onto the book's cover. A force is defined as a push or pull on an object. Hence, when you pull open the cover and then push it down you are applying a force to it. When you open the cover and hold it vertically, there is a net force becuase the force from pulling the cover open is greather then the force of gravity. In other words the external forces applied to the book do not cancel eachother out. When you remove your hand, the cover of the book falls, this is because gravity is the only force acting upon it if a book sits in a locker remainig untouched for a month is there still a force upon it? Well there are forces on it but there is no net force, this is a state known as static equilibrium. In this 'locker state' all the forces are balanced. The force of the locker pushing up on the book is equal to the force of gravity pusing the book down. And as you know, if this locker were to magically disappear then the book would fall because now there is net force because there is nothing to balance out the downward force of gravity. So the book would simply fall down untill acted upon by another force such as the ground which would then again change the net force to zero by balancing out the force of gravity. let go back to the concept of reading (or 'skimming' through the book) The pages of the book do not magically turn themselves. You have to apply a force to them (because an object at rest will remain at rest until acted upon by a net force) That net force is your hand. When you flip the page (and that's hard work right there) your hand is facing inertia- the reistance from the page of this change of velocity. Or simply put the mass of that single page, is the amount or resitance you hand is facing. This just goes to show physics is everywhere
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