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Found 35 results

  1. Hello! I'm using the "AP Physics Essentials: 1" book to study for my Work, Power, and Energy exam (chapter 5.) I need clarification on question 5.10; how do we decide on the equation to use? I'm so lost on how to make that determination. Thanks!
  2. In our body, we often consciously use our skeletal muscles. Our nervous system sends an electrical signal to our muscles which affects proteins which cause our muscle to contract. Electrical energy is transmitted which begins a process of chemical energy being converted to mechanical energy. Some smooth muscles behave like skeletal muscles, while others have contractions which are regularly and methodically induced by specific cells. The actions of these cells keep systems such as the digestive system working continuously without conscious thought. The heart, the cardiac muscle, is controlled the same way as the smooth muscle. The cardiac muscle pumps blood through the body, using mechanical energy to bring oxygen to cells where it can facilitate more chemical reactions.
  3. Yooooooo check this out. I was chillin in my studio and i had to open a window (for circulation). As i opened it, a gust of wind hit me in the facial region. But i thought nothing of it. No one ever does. Ever. WIND is overlooked all the time even-though it occurs pretty much all the time. WIND, in its smallest components is simply a MASSIVE amount of mostly oxygen and nitrogen molecules flying around due to diffrences in atmospheric pressure. So, by feeling a gentile wind on your skin, your actually experiencing millions of oxygen atoms smashing into you. But say there's other things in the air around you. Like dirt, or smaller particles like dust, and Smoke. Those particles also smash against you. Ow Now lets talk about pressure. If you've taken chemestry or physics you know that: (p1v1)/t1 = (p2v2)/t2 where p=pressure, v=volume, and t=temperature. This equation represents the fact that within a closed system, pressure and volume have an indirect relationship (as one goes up, the other goes down). Along with this, pressure and temperature have a direct relationship. This being said, if the atmospheric pressure in a certain region increases, the massive amount of atoms making up the air around you will be pushed away from said region... CREATING WIND. whoa. With love, you're friend -Shabba
  4. Everyone likes trampolines. But how do they even work? It's all about energy, and at the same time, proves Newton's laws of motion. Potential energy (PE) and kinetic energy (KE) are the reason trampolines allow you to jump higher than you can on flat ground. One type of potential energy that is involved with trampolines is the potential energy stored in springs. Another type of energy is gravitational potential energy. There is also kinetic energy because you are moving. The equation that connects potential and kinetic energy to find total energy (E) is: E=PE+KE+Q The total energy of the person jumping on a trampoline equals all of the potential energy (both the spring and gravitational potential), plus the kinetic energy. Q is internal energy, which isn't really important here. Other equations needed to understand the forces and energy of trampolines are: PE=mgh This used to find the potential energy due to gravity. You multiply the mass of the object (or person in this case), by the height they are from the ground, by g, acceleration due to gravity. Which is always 9.81 m/s^2. People with larger masses have a greater potential energy due to gravity if they are at the same height as someone with a smaller mass. However, it is harder for people with larger masses to reach the same heights as people with small masses, because gravity is pulling them down more. PE=(1/2)kx^2 The potential energy stored in a spring: "x" is how much the spring stretches, and "k" is the spring constant. Hooke's law goes along with this: F=kx. The force of the spring is the constant multiplied by the change in the spring length. This demonstrates Newton's third law; every action has an equal and opposite reaction. When the springs are stretched by the person, they have to compress again, making the person jump higher as the trampoline returns to its original position. Because of gravity, larger masses allow the spring to be stretched out more. This can be shown by the equation F=ma, which is Newton's second law of motion. "F" is the force of gravity, "m" is mass, and "a" here is also g, acceleration due to gravity. So when mass increases, so does the force of gravity. This means the object/person is being pulled down harder by gravity. This stretches the springs of the trampoline more, creating a higher spring potential energy. But the mass is usually too heavy for the spring to move you if you just stand there, which is why you don't move unless you start jumping first. Smaller kids usually jump higher than adults, even though they have a lower potential energy due to gravity, because the trampoline can more easily spring them back up, since they are being pulled down by gravity slightly less. This is all a great example of Newton's first law: objects in motion will keep moving, and objects at rest will not move, until acted upon by an outside force. The outside forces that keep you on the trampoline are both gravity, which keeps you down, and the trampoline itself, which keeps you up. You also wont move until you begin jumping. Pushing your feet down makes you go up. (Newton's third law!)
  5. So senior year has finally come to an end and we all are saying goodbye. So I thought I would discuss the physics of senior year. The year has had so much physics enwrapped in it, in and outside the classroom. We got to use physics in physics c (duh), calculus, and technology for those who take these classes. With a basic understanding of physics, these classes became easier to learn and master. Outside the classroom, physics was used by every athlete in the school in some shape or form from lacrosse involving torque, to hockey with rotational motion. But there is so much more. Physics was used every time the students went up and down the stairs, or when we used the computers or cell phones (which of course none of us would ever do). There's when we go to the nurses office and they use the thermometer, or when we do our locker combinations to get our stuff. Physics can even be applied to our work effort. the more energy that we used throughout the year, the less potential energy we had to use. Hence, the moment APs were over, almost the entire class stopped working, using at times only the most minimal of effort. Finally, there was the excitement factor. Like with electromagnetism, the closer we got to the end of the year, the more energetic we got, buzzing with excitement for graduation. On that note, I would like to say good luck to everyone in their future, whether that be in college or high school or whatever it is you do, and to continue with physics and stay nerdy!!!
  6. My friends and I go to Zumba classes three times a week and it is very fun. Like any regular physics student, I am constantly thinking about Mr. Fullerton's lessons during class. As we dance, jump, and move I get to thinking... it must take a lot of energy to move around the way we do. But as we eat healthily and exercise more often, Zumba gets easier and easier... why? Here are some of the equations I will be using to help explain this Zumba Paradox... - KE = (1/2)(mass)(velocity2) - PE = (mass)(g)(height) - Work = Change in Mechanical Energy - Work = Force * Displacement It takes work to move our body in all different sorts of ways. Because work is equal to the change in Mechanical Energy, and both Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy are proportional to the mass of the object, it is reasonable to say that work is also proportional to the mass of the object. In this case, the object is our body. As any athletic trainer will happily tell you, a good workout is one where you do the most work. In our case, we will hold everything else constant besides our mass because we are doing the exact same class every time we work out. Put extremely simply, work is how much you move times how much weight you are moving. So, it is correct to say that as you lose mass you will do less and less work each successive time you go to Zumba class. I want to lose weight at a constant rate, as would most females in Zumba class. Constant weight loss is much better than fluctuating weight loss. So how can I keep my weight loss constant, and overcome this work-mass relationship that we discussed earlier? Zumba deals with changes in Kinetic Energy more than other types of fitness training such as weight lifting which deals more with changes in Potential Energy. So for simplicity we will set Work equal to the change in only KE. Here's what we want to happen: C = (1/2)(mass)(velocity2) // With C being a constant positive number that represents an amount of Joules In order for us to keep a constant C, velocity2 has to increase at a rate equal to the rate at which mass decreases. Here's our relationship in equation form: velocity2 = 1/mass // or in exponential form --> velocity = mass-1/2 So there it is, ladies and gents, if you want to lose weight at a constant rate, you need to increase your intensity a little bit each class as you shed the pounds.
  7. The drinking bird novelty item has been around for decades, but it's seemingly simple design is deceptive. Carefully calculated physics principles have gone into the creation of this toy. Mostly, it utilizes energy conversion, operating as a heat engine that changes heat energy from water into mechanical work. The drinking bird design is made up of several important components: -two glass bulbs of equal size attached on either end of a glass tube -a fuzzy, absorbent material to cover the bird's head -two plastic legs connected to the body with a pivot -a small amount of methylene chloide (industrial paint stripper and solvent) liquid in the bottom glass bulb -either a red or a blue hat, depending on the model For the toy to work, the felt tip on the bird's beak must be dipped into a cup of water, which then allows it to absorb a small amount of that water. As the water in its beak evaporates, the temperature in it goes down, which causes the methylene chloride vapor to condense. When this happens, liquid from the bottom bulb is forced upward, toward the head and beak portion. Then, as liquid enters the head, the bird becomes top-heavy and slowly begins to tip forward once again. As the drinking bird does tip, the rest of the liquid goes to the bird's head and the bottom portion of the tube isn't submerged any more. Vapor then travels back up the tube which will then cause the head to drain of liquid again. As the bottom glass bulb is filled with liquid again, the bird becomes more bottom heavy and the entire process begins again.
  8. Throw away everything you have ever learned about classical physics. Forget about everything logic has taught you, and remove any ordinary rules of thought that every sane person uses to make deductions. For some people this may be harder than others, but for me, it's fun. Not like hydrogen bonding is "FON" but like real fun. Mr. Fullerton said, "If you understand Quantum Physics, you must be an idiot, or should have a PhD in physics." Challenge accepted Mr. Fullerton. Quantum Physics is like the rebel of all science's this is why I am so attracted to the idea! Classical physics says, particle are particles, and waves are waves, and never shall they meet. Particles have an energy E and a momentum vector p. Waves, like light waves, have amplitude A and a wave vector k (where the magnitude of k=2?/?, where ? is the wavelength) that points in the direction the wave is traveling. According to classical physics, that's the end of it. However, in reality things are a bit different. There are random laws. The theories of nature are intellectually intolerable and contradicting. The idea of a random, uncontrollable element in the laws of nature did not sit well with classic physicists. This idea of the arrival of a photon was truly an unpredictable event. The final position of a photon is unpredictable. It is impossible to say where the photon is and what direction it's moving in. This fuzziness deals with the Uncertainty Principle. And by Uncertainty, in no way is this made up numbers. Uncertainty is precise, it is a fact and it is known. (Thank you Hindenburg.) It involves probability measurements, integral calculus, and other fancy mathematics. So this uncertainty dealing with probability could be as simple as flipping a coin 1000 times. Now there is a probability of flipping a coin heads 1000 times, but I wouldn't bet my money on that. It is completely random and unpredictable as of now by scientists. This is kind of what Einstein meant when he said "God doesn't play dice." He flips coins. Just kidding! But there has been some controversy over this with Stephen Hawking challenging Einstein's claim, and presenting an idea which could possibly allow scientists to tell the future. The end of time is the next revolution in physics. Scientist are describing time as something that happens when nothing else does. Others believe if nothing happened, if nothing changed, time would stop. Kind of like if a tree fell in a forest with no one there, would anyone hear it? But this new claim in science questions, and proves time doesn't exist. A timeless universe is intensely temporal. This new theme casts doubt on Einstein's greatest contribution, the space-time continuum. The problem? The great chasm between classical and quantum physics. Einstein's general relativity and quantum mechanics may well spell the end of time. This is the mystery of the universe: multiple worlds, time travel, immortality, and the illusion of motion. This is the most fascinating thing I have ever set my eyes upon. This is the Stern-Gerlach experimental apparatus. The result expected for atoms in an l = 1 state (three components) is shown. The angular momentum is l=0 and z component of that angular momentum is 0. These silver atoms spin up or spin down. Because 46 of the silver's 47 electrons are arranged in a symmetrical cloud, they contribute nothing to the orbital angular momentum of the atom. The 47th electron can be in the 5p state, the angular momentum is l=0 and the z component of angular momentum is 0. It could also be in the 5p state when the angular momentum is l=1, which means the z component of its angular momentum can be -1, 0, or 1. There are two possible directions of spin up or down. Electrons contain intrinsic angular momentum giving us angular momentum that interacts with magnetic field. Angular momentum other than orbital angular momentum is just spin. And depending of the spin of that 47th electron in the atom, there are two possible states of the spin up and down. This is similar to the spin of the earth, you can't stop it. And you also cannot stop the electrons from possessing spin. This goes for other subatomic particles that possess spin, such as protons. Another scary, wonderful thing about quantum mechanics is the interacting of two electrons. Identical particles do not retain their individuality in terms of any measurable, observable quality. You lose the individuality of identical particles as soon as you mix them with similar particles! As soon as you let N identical particles interact, you cannot say which exact is one at r1, r2, r3, r4� Particles obviously have some identity problems. I mean they're just a discrete piece of matter, give them a break. Another cool thing about quantum physics is tunneling. A phenomenon where particle can get through regions that their classically forbidden to go. Are we getting this theme of classic, not being so classy to quantum physics? Mainly what I am trying to say is if I ever fall through the floor due to quantum mechanics, you can have my physics books. The police should really keep their eyes out for photons. They can collide into others, split and then rejoin again! They are tricky things. The basic interaction is called a vertex a fork in the road. A particle proceeds along its world line, until it comes to a fork, but then, instead of choosing one road or the other, the particle splits and turns into two particles, one for each branch. A single electron, spontaneously, without any warning suddenly splits into an electron and a photon, each part is somehow less than the original. Scary concepts from quantum physics: -Probability can be in negatives, but it is nonsense to say, getting heads over tails is a minus one-third chance, it just doesn't make sense. -The complex number, imaginary number, i, is abstract math for the square root minus one. -Black holes are black bodies. -1 light-year is really just a year -Even the coldest object radiates some electromagnetic radiation, as long as they are not absolute zero, which scientist have not yet reached. -If a black hole loses energy, it also loses mass. -Noise is just random unstructured information, like white noise on the screen of a defective TV set, which is why the TV keeps coincidentally turning on in Donnie Darko! Scary. -A dumb hole is a drain hole where the velocity of the flow exceed the speed of sound in water, close to the drain -Mr. Fullerton's hair absorbs every color besides red. -It is possible to have a coin land on its side -It is possible to throw a ball against a wall so many times it goes through "It is impossible as I state it, and therefore I must in some respect have stated it wrong." ~Sherlock Holmes
  9. Version 1

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    Students make a variety of calculations given a photon of specific frequency or wavelength.

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  10. 102 downloads

    Tutorial/guide sheet for AP Physics C on work, energy, and power.

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