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What makes an Atom?

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I had a very thought provoking conversation with some fellow students in the spare time of seventh period. The subject of some debate was the true nature of the atomic elements. We are talking of the chemical elements of the periodic table, nothing to do with Avatar: The Last Airbender, one of the greatest animated shows to grace our planet but I digress. Atomic manifest their properties from protons and electrons. A nucleus of protons, positive charges, tends to attract an equivalently charged quantity of electrons, negative charges, that occupy energy levels. Energy levels are stratum of electrons a certain radius from the positive proton nucleus. It follows that a relatively large positive charge would attract a large amount of electrons for multiple energy levels and a wide radius. Only certain discrete amounts of electrons can occupy  an energy level but generally those closest. Now that the groundwork has been established, we can discuss how certain period groups have their properties in a part two.

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