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Yankees catcher,  Gary Sanchez, takes some abuse at his position. Not only from public criticism of his struggles blocking pass balls, but also the constant force of catching baseballs for 9 innings of play. In this blog I will examine the force that Sanchez has felt while catching Chapman.

First, Aroldis Chapman can throw 105 mph (47 m/s) fastballs at Sanchez.


p= (.145 kg)(47m/s)

p= 6.8 kg*m/s

Say the time it takes for Sanchez to stop the ball is .1s

F= p/t

F = (6.8kg*m/s)/(.1s)

F= 6.8 N 



Swimming for the most part is a fairly cheap sport to partake in. A cheap jammer can cost as little as $10 and goggles cost as low as $3 but I wouldn't recommend going cheap if you swim to win. Swimming is a sport where you are constantly fighting drag, whether it is air resistance off the blocks or the water while swimming. Up until sectionals, we all use the suits the school is willing to pay to get us, and there ok. Then when sectionals rolls around in February, you see very few school suit and you get to look around at the different tech suits that people were willing to pay for. This past year I bought a pink, Arena Carbon Air tech suit for $250. This suit is thin and made of nylon, elastane, and carbon fiber, resists the water and cuts back on drag. This is the suit I liked but many others had a Speedo Fastskin. This suit is designed to cut down on drag forces on the swimmer and has attempted to mimic shark skin. the suit has small v shaped ridges to reduce the drag at the swimmers body. These ridges disturb the stagnant water trapped by the swimmers body decreasing drag. Between, the suits and shaving, swimmers can become quicker, and more competitive at sectionals. This is why I invested. 

Image result for arena carbon airImage result for speedo fastskin


Michael Phelps is not only the greatest swimmer of all time, but the greatest Olympian of all time. After competing in five Olympic summer games, ( Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008, London 2012, and Rio 2016) Phelps has set multiple Olympic and world records and has won 28 ' Olympic medals. 23 gold, 3 silver, and 2 bronze. Standing 6' 4" with a enormous 6' 7" wingspan, the man is built to swim. On television it looks like he does so much work to set his records and win medals, but how much does he really do? The answer will surprise you.

First, lets define work. W= Fd In this case we will be determining force as p/t (momentum divided by time) where p=mv

Work = force times displace

Phelps set the world record in the 100m Butterfly back in 2009 with a time of 49.82 seconds. swimming the race with and average velocity of 2 m/s. Michael weighs 194 pounds or 88 kilograms. 

Thus, p=mv 

p= (88 kg)(2 m/s) 

p= 176 kg*m/s

Michael's force is then, F=p/t

F = (176 kg*m/s)/(49.82s)

F=3.6 N

Phelps swims the first 50m then turns.

W= Fd

W= (3.6 N) (50m)= 180 J

If Michael never turned:

W= (3.6 N) (100m)= 306 J

Phelps then turns returning to where we started the race:

W= (3.6 N)(0m)= 0 J

This proves why Michael Phelps always makes what he does look easy, he does not work at all. Well done Michael. 

Image result for michael phelps


Ever since 2014, the number of home runs hit in a MLB baseball game has risen 47%. While some blame PED's, it is easier to prove the physics. The primary factor in hitting a home run is bat speed. For every 1 extra mph of bat speed, means an extra 1.2 mph of ball speed making the ball fly 6 feet further. Also, launch angle effects whether or not a hit is a home run. The best launch angle is somewhere between 25 and 35 degrees. If the ball is hit on the upper half, it will be a ground ball with a downwards velocity. Lastly, hitting the ball with the sweet spot of the bat (5-6 inches from the end of the bat minimizes the vibration of the bat and thus maximizes the energy transferred to the ball. 

Players now are taught to try and hit the ball just below its center to create more home runs, and as a result, strikeout and most importantly fly out perentages have sky rocketed since 2014. 


Source: NOVA


We all know that mass must be conserved and that mass cannot be created or destroyed. This law is a  fundamental law in physics. In order for an object to gain mass it must be added and con not just simply appear. This is where not only Darwin but physicists can question pokemon evolution. Take Ponyta for example, this fire horse, weighs 66 pounds (29.94 kg) according to the pokedex. After it evolves into Rapidash at level 40, it weighs 209 pounds (94.8 kg). This makes pokemon evolution impossible because at the instant of evolution, ponyta would create 64.86 kg worth of mass, breaking the law of the conservation of mass. this then leads me to believe that the experience gained by a pokemon in order to level up is a form of energy. Mass can not be created but energy can be converted into mass as stated by E=mc^2. So how much experience energy is needed for Ponyta to evolve? Lets find out.


E=mc^2 The mass used will be the change in mass due to evolution 94.8 kg - 29.94 Kg= 64.86 kg

E= (64.86 kg) (3x10^8 m/s)

E= 19548000000 Joules of experience energy


As it is implied by my username, I swim here at IHS. I have been swimming competitively for almost 15 years now since the age of 3 and can now explain the sport in terms of physics and not just times, numbers, and countless abbreviations they will never remember. Once in the water, every motion you make pushes on the water and because of Newton's third law of motion states, every action has an equal and opposite reaction. For every kick, stoke, shimmy, and turn I am being pushed forward by the water with the same force that I apply to the water. This may explain why Deb always tell Jack to kick more. The more frequent he kicks, the more force he applies during a race and faster he goes. Maybe he should just listen and actually kick. Newton could have told him almost 300 years ago.


Hello there! Welcome to the world of pokémon! My name is Oak! People call me the pokémon Prof! This world is inhabited by creatures called pokémon! For some people, pokémon are pets. Others use them for fights. Myself...I study pokémon as a profession.


Many people can recognize Einstein's equation E=mc^2. However, many don't know its meaning. Energy = mass times the speed of light squared. So just how much energy can a pokeball store? Lets find out.

The Pokemon with the greatest mass is the Groudon, the legendary from the generation 3 game, Ruby. Groudon has a mass of 2094.4kg as stated in the pokedex.



Image result for groudonImage result for pokeball



E= (2094.4kg) (3x10^8 m/s)

E=188496000000000000000 J



Hello there! Welcome to the world of pokémon! My name is Oak! People call me the pokémon Prof! This world is inhabited by creatures called pokémon! For some people, pokémon are pets. Others use them for fights. Myself...I study pokémon as a profession.


Pidgey, a small bird Pokemon, and the first evolution of Pidgeott can be caught at the very beginning of all generation one Pokemon games.

Image result for pidgey

Despite its small size, and relative weakness, it can learn the move Hm 02. Hm 02 is the move fly which allow the trainer to travel to any town in the Kanto region in which said trainer has visited the Pokemon Center, after receiving the Thunder Badge from Lt. Surge. But, is jumping onto the back of this tiny bird Pokemon safe. I would say no. According to my research the average force required to break a birds wishbone is 620N. The average human has a mass of 70kg and thus a 700N force due to the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, by jumping onto the back of a Pidgey or any of the bird Pokemon would result in the breaking of the poor things bones, and an immediate trip to the nearest Pokemon Center. Maybe try something a little stronger, Charizard or Drangonite may be of some use now.




Video 1:

1)    Learning is fast

2)    Knowledge is a compilation of isolated facts

3)    Success is not based on effort

4)    Humans can successfully multitask

These are the beliefs that if held by a student will simple prevent learning and make people dumb. Many of us today are too attached to the minicomputer in our pockets and are unwilling to let it go. However, learning and studying with distractions isn’t successful studying at all.


Video 2:

                        The most important part of studying is what you think about while doing it. Are you focused on the material and making connections between topics, or are you thinking about playing a game or replying to a message on your phone? Studying is most effective when done to allow for deep processing of material (AKA: making connects, marking differences, and using personal experience to understand material).

Helpful Tips:

1)    Minimize distractions

2)    Have accurate metacognition

3)    Deep processing of material

4)    Practicing material retrieval as it will be required on a test

Video 3:

1)    Elaborate- relating topics to one another

2)    Distinction- recognize differences in material

3)    Personal- relate information to your own experience

4)    Retrieval- practice recalling information as it will be asked

5)    Automaticity- practice beyond basic understanding

6)    Overlearning- study till the material is known as if second nature

Video 4:

                        Notes should be taken by hand to limit useless material copying and online distractions. Only make notes of key material and connections to other material as well as make them engaging to study multiple times.

                        Create a study group with a common goal to move not only a few to better understanding but the group as a whole. Set requirements to keep the group working and focused as well as reducing slackers. Lastly make sure everyone shares the same understanding as the group, any member should be able to answer for the group as a whole.

Video 5:

                        If you fail a test, don’t panic on deny it happened. Review the test and compare its questions with your notes and preparation. If there is material you don’t understand talk with the teacher and add detail to your notes. Being willing and accepting to getting help and clarify what you don’t understand. Then learn from the test and continue working with a new understanding.



Who Am I?

Throughout my past three years as an IHS student, i have sought out the hardest classes i could. Starting with AP Euro then expanding my AP's into my current schedule. I have swam and ran for IHS in the past and will continue to swim this year. I enjoy the challenges of school and sports and hope to continue these challenges this year. I decided to take this course after being told my college administrators that AP Physics 1 would not be accepted no matter the AP score and that part of AP-C would be accepted. Also, after hearing that this class was one the hardest three in the high school I knew i wanted to challenge the course. My goal for the class is to over come the challenge and learn more about the world of physics that would help with my plan in terms of college major (Aerospace Engineering). This year i am excited that I can take courses that I enjoy and that aren't easy and to push my limits in the classroom and in the pool. My anxiety this year revolves around keeping up with my course work and managing my time when taking four AP's, planning and doing my Eagle Project, swimming, applying for college, and being a good host for my exchange partner who will be in Rochester in 10 days.

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