# heather_heupel

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1. ## Physics of MRI

Ever since I had an MRI on my knee (worst experience ever) I wanted to discover what was really going on. Sitting still for 32 minutes really makes you start to think about everything. I wondered what the machine was really doing. I had to take off all of my jewelry, or clothes that may have metal on them and until 9 minutes into it did I realize I left my ring on. I only noticed because it was vibrating and made my hand feel weird. I pulled the emergency cord and told them what was wrong and they allowed me to keep it on because that part of my body was not in the tube. I found a really good video that started off by explaining the waves, amplitude, frequency, phase, etc. The concepts are kind of hard so I had to keep re-watching parts of the video. I also still need a lot of explanation. What I did pick up was this is one of the times electrons aren't as important as the Nucleus. Using the technology and creating the clear pictures, tumor tissues could be differed from normal tissues. It became the quickest (although not very quick if you're actually in one) screening tool to detect these defaults in the human body. To make an MRI picture, they use 3D space to focus the image of the ligaments. This was a very hard topic to research especially since it is only my first year of physics but Mr. Fullerton I'm sure could easily understand it;

3. ## Music

Because were making iPod speakers in class, I decided to figure out the physics of music. First off, frequency is the amount of vibrations per second. Vibrations create sound. A through G are letters that are assigned to exact frequencies. For example, the note C has a wave length of 1.301. The reason there is no "H" note is because when frequencies double they sound similar due to the wave structure. When the notes repeat its called an octave. The black keys on the piano are notes that musicians had to make using relationship between frequency and vibrations per second. With the relationships from that equations, you can also discover the cords. The video on youtube "The Basic Physics of Music" goes into this with further detail. :-)
4. ## Rollercoasters

Roller coasters is another one of my physics interests. A big question is why don't people fall out when the roller coaster goes upside down. Energy, inertia and gravity all have to do with this. Newtons first law says that an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by a net force. The coaster is going too fast for a body to just fall out. The first big hill on most roller coasters is what runs the rest of it. The cart is pulled up to the top of the hill and then gravity takes over for a majority of the ending. When it goes around in the loop and you feel a tug to the side, that's the centripetal force acting on you. When the ride begins, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Throughout the whole ride, there is a force looking the bodies in. This video shows it more in depth;
5. ## Physics of car accidents

I remember Mr. Fullerton saying a while ago said that using physics, investigators could figure out what went on in a car accident. I became curious as to how they did this. I found this youtube video that taught me a lot about it. The first part is inertia, and that the human body is going the same speed as the car, but when the car quickly stops, the body wants to continue at that speed. The steering wheel or wind shield will apply a force on the body to stop it. Also, extending the time of deceleration using airbags or having the front of the car crunch, will reduce the impact (Newtons Second Law: F=ma). There is a separate tip of metal in the front of the vehicle that will crush easier so that the damage is confined to the front end. Without the "crumple zone" the passengers are in much more danger. "You can't argue with the laws of physics" -Griff Jones Understanding Car Crashes: It's Basic Physic https://youtu.be/yUpiV2I_IRI
6. ## Experiments

http://youtu.be/Mskc0KYIR1E Before taking physics, I wasn't really sure what the class was even about. Halfway through the year I have come to the conclusion that there is no real classification. A school year seems far to little to go over all of it, it seems as if it could go on forever, because physics is everything. The one thing I am surprised about the class the most is that we don't do many experiments other than on our own in labs. This video interested me because I would want to try it and understand how it works. I looked through a bunch of physics experiments videos and they all had me eager to learn about them.
7. ## Experiments

http://youtu.be/Mskc0KYIR1E Before taking physics, I wasn't really sure what the class was even about. Halfway through the year I have come to the conclusion that there is no real classification. A school year seems far to little to go over all of it, it seems as if it could go on forever, because physics is everything. The one thing I am surprised about the class the most is that we don't do many experiments other than on our own in labs. This video interested me because I would want to try it and understand how it works. I looked through a bunch of physics experiments videos and they all had me eager to learn about them.

9. ## Physics of Skiing

Last night while skiing, I started to think about the physics behind it all. Since my surgery last year, I am very cautious about the velocity I go down the hill. Whenever someone comes close to me or speeding past me, it is very nerve wracking. Because I am smaller than most other skiers, if we collided, I would most likely experience the bigger change in velocity and impulse (J). During my accident last year, I was barely moving about to stop, going a velocity of probably .5 m/s when I was hit by a skier with a velocity of who knows what, but it was a lot more than mine. Using the table that Mr. Fullerton taught us, we could set it up to see our velocity as we hit each other and "became one." Click the link below to see the calculations: https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?ui=2&ik=d929e88657&view=fimg&th=14af8ed76809b7ea&attid=0.1&disp=inline&safe=1&attbid=ANGjdJ9QixkSnDJkm-9P2gjUqZuuDCm8E5DUgFVY2H-MmNxLkeXS1Fa77JYeR9c17m7jMm12Z0ebdQt6QuyM-QyN3M53uBa-uFKgftBKEZCDCZGOjMWqjIU4WUnfC6c&ats=1421515542608&rm=14af8ed76809b7ea&zw&sz=w1000-h379
10. ## The Physics of Driving

Newtons first law states that an object in motion stays in motion, and an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by a net force. So if you are driving at 100 miles per hour and hit a car, coming to a quick stop, your body will still want to continue at 100 miles per hour. Why doesn't it? Because the net force, your seat belt, is holding you back. Airbags also help to keep you out of danger. When cars were first designed, they had to think about the physics. The windshield would also stop you from going 100 miles per hour but that would be much more painful and it may not even stop you. Overall, no matter how fast the car is moving, that's how fast we will be moving. I looked up when seat belts first became required and it wasn't til the late 70's til they were required for all passengers. 1686 was when Newton presented his three laws of motion in the "Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturali's." Weird that they were so far apart from each other.
11. ## Field hockey

In years past when I used to play field hockey, friction and forces were a big part of the game. First of all, some games would be on grass and others on turf. These were two completely different types of games due to the amount of friction the ball and the ground had. On turf, the ball moved much faster due to the fact that the surface is smoother. The ball continues to travel for a longer amount of time on the turf than the grass because the grass has lots of divits and bumps and holes. These spots add resistance to the ball making the game extremely slower. Also, when hitting the ball, you can tell that the ball is exerting a force on the stick because the stick shakes and vibrates. Since the stick has a larger mass and another force acting upon it (someones hands) it will not move but the ball will. When the ball hits the goal cage, a loud noise is made. This is because of the force the ball is exerting on the wood, but the ball bounces back off the goal cage because of the force the goal is exerting back. All forces come in equal and opposite pairs and there are no exceptions.
12. ## Physics is everything

After school everyday I find my parents asking me "what'd you learn today?" For the past 5 years I've always been saying nothing. Although we do learn a lot everyday in school, I've never thought that any of it will help me in the real world therefore it seemed like unimportant information when outside the classroom. Throughout the first two months of school, I feel like I've learned a ton in physics class alone. I think that everything we've learned can actually apply to things outside the classroom, not just on the tests that we take. First off, from the second I wake up, physics does it's thing. When standing out of bed, I've learned that the bed applies just as much force to me as I apply to the bed. Because my bed has more mass then I do, I move and it stays put. The same goes for everything I touch throughout the day, everything applies forces right back. Before physics, I never really thought about things this way. So far, it has been my favorite science class of high school because it makes sense to me since I can think about parts of physics with everything I do. I hope that we learn more about the physics of sound because now I'm a lot more curious about the things that I do on a daily basis.

14. ## Catapult Project

This is mine and Michalla's catapult. We are excited to launch tomorrow although it does not throw a very far distance. Prior to building it, we did not do any calculations. We built it by eye and what we thought would launch the best. Even though it is not amazing, we are proud of how it came out because at first we never thought us two could build one. If we were to do the project again, we would keep in mine that if it was angled at 45 degrees, it would travel the farthest. Also, if we used some sort of springs we think that the velocity right after the softball leaves the lacrosse stick would be higher. Lastly, from watching lacrosse games I know that lacrosse sticks are often broken. From being in physics class, I now know that all forces come in pairs (Newtons 3rd Law). This has been starting to make me nervous because as the catapult is exerting a force on the softball, the softball is exerting the same force back onto the catapult. If the project wasn't tomorrow I would think about changing what I used to build it for this reason. It should be fun to see what happens tomorrow.
15. ## Ti selfie contest

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