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Everybody has things that they do and carry with them that make them unique. Some swim, some like plane rides, some people sky dive and some people learn faster than others. Me? I run, hate riding a plane, despise heights and I try my best to learn thoroughly and thoughtfully -- which is not often the fastest process. Since seventh grade, I have been running track because I always felt that I was able to move myself towards the finish line a little bit faster than most. I have, from my experience in seventh grade, developed a thirst to run faster and faster. Now, in senior year, I have the opportunity to win sectionals with three of my friends in a 400 meter dash relay; a sectionals victory has been a great goal of mine for a very long time now, and my hard work and persistence have now paid off. The very same hard work and persistence have contributed towards success in school and in Boy Scouts. I have learned to enjoy learning, and I am only weeks away from achieving Eagle Scout just as my Grandfather and older brother have before me. I enjoy challenges, so for my senior year of high school, I have figured that I should try my hardest to conquer yet another challenge: AP Physics C! This is only one of the reasons which I chose to take this class, I also chose to take this class because I enjoyed taking Physics last year and I plan on majoring in a field of engineering in my future. This year, I am excited to learn alongside some of my favorite peers and understand a topic not many high school students get the chance to take advantage of. However, this also introduces some anxiousness along with the difficulty; I am concerned that all of the work I am taking on this year will be whelming but, at the same time, I also believe that with this hard work, I will put myself in a great position for my upcoming years of college. I am hoping to have a great year in AP Physics C, and I wish the same for my friends, too!

Entries in this blog

etracey99

This past week, we did a small partner lab. Our mission was to make a top out of the following materials: 2 paper plates, a plain wood pencil, 6 pennies, and tape. The top also had to be able to spin for more than only a few seconds. However, there were no instructions other than to make a top. Immediately, each student in the room with his or her partner immediately began undergoing the engineering process, whether they knew it or not.

The engineering process has steps to be done in this order -- Define the problem, do background research, specify requirements, brainstorm solutions, choose the best solution, do development work, build a prototype, test and redesign. We already knew the problem, and we were presented with a top to look at in the back of the room, so we already defined the problem and did a little research on tops. The requirements were to make the top with the materials provided, and the top must spin for more than only a few seconds. We brainstormed quickly and then talked about our ideas on how to make the top. We then chose to mix our ideas together to get the best solution possible and we discussed who was to make it and walked through it together. Soon, we had a prototype and we were able to test that design. If it did not work that well, we tried something new. This lab, in a nutshell, was a little simulation of the engineering process!

This lab also shows a relationship between tops, angular momentum and moment of inertia. As the top spins, the angular momentum generated points straight up into the air, and if there were no friction, the top would spin forever because the momentum that holds the top up is forever conserved unless acted on by an outside force. The moment of inertia of the top is the rotational analog of the mass of the top. The angular momentum discussed above is the result of the top's moment of inertia times the rotational velocity.

etracey99

This blog post was inspired by MyloXyloto's post: "Frisbee Fysics," Check it out!

In football, throwing the ball with spin is called throwing a spiral. The better the spiral, generally the better the pass and the easier it is to catch. But why in football does spin make the ball easier to catch while in baseball spin makes the ball harder to hit? Well, in baseball, spin makes the ball curve. Different amounts of spin will make the ball curve at certain times or certain speeds, making the baseball harder to hit with bat. However, in football, the spin on the ball does not do that.

When the football is thrown it immediately has angular momentum, and if thrown without being tipped or hit somehow, the football will remain in the same orientation. This is valuable because it makes the ball land in the receiver's hands quite easily because it will generally be caught the same way every time. In addition, because the football is in the same orientation throughout its entire flight, the ball will experience the same amount of air resistance and will therefore keep a straighter path. Imagine a football flying at you in a random pattern, and it is moving side to side slightly in the air. It will be hard for you to predict how and where to catch it compared to if the football was on a straight path right to you.

In all, the importance of the spiral when throwing a football is accuracy! Tight spiral = quality pass.

etracey99

Since I have a piano recital tonight, I have had music on my mind all day long. Seriously, I have practiced this piece for several weeks and now whenever I hear a piano, I think about the Maple Leaf Rag. Anyway, I have been thinking a lot about the chords in the song and how the different notes react with each other to make that chord sound the way it does.

I have found some videos that show how different notes react with one another. Both of the examples compare C to every interval all the way up to the next octave. For both examples, see how the waves react when C is played with C# versus how the waves react when C is played with G because there is a big difference between the sounds of those chords. This first video is of sound in sine waves, which is most likely the most common and recognizable wave shape.

 

This next video is similar to the last one, however, instead of sine waves they use saw waves. Saw waves are cool because they sound more futuristic/robotic and are extremely recognizable. A notable example of the use of saw waves in music is on Pink Floyd's "Welcome to the Machine" off of their record, Wish You Were Here. Saw waves are also prevalent in a lot of modern music, especially a lot of rap such as the beginning of Kanye West's "Father Stretch My Hands Pt. 1" off of The Life of Pablo right after the sample. (Very recognizable part of the song).

 

I hope you enjoyed listening to noises for a few minutes. It is quite interesting how the different frequencies of the notes react with one another when put together!

 

etracey99

Clay Matthews, 52 on the Green Bay Packers, is a famous linebacker. He has the all-time sack record for the Packers and has been in many commercials from Old Spice to Play Station. Let us look at some stats:

Weight: 225 lbs (102.06 kg). Top Speed: 20.03 MPH (8.95 m/s)

Imagine you are a quarterback, and Clay Matthews is running at you... You try to get out of the way but you simply cannot... all of a sudden... BOOM, you just got rekt because Clay Matthews sacked the snot out of you. How much force did you get hit with? Let's look.

p=mv -> p=(102.06 kg)(8.95 m/s) -> p= 913.44 N*s.

Clay Matthews, at top speed, has a momentum of 913.44 N*s.  Now, let us suppose that from the first point of contact to the point that Clay Matthews has fully hit you, arms wrapped around you and everything, is about 0.15 seconds.

(913.44 N*s)/(0.15 s) = 6089.6 N... Newtons -> Pounds = (6089.6)(0.224809) = 1368.99 pounds of force.

Congratulations, your defensive line did not defend you and Clay Matthews has tackled you with 1368.99 pounds of force. OuchImage result for clay matthews celebration

etracey99

Did you know that the average double door (two car garage size) is around 200 pounds? Imagine if every time you had to open the garage, you had to lift that much weight by yourself. Many people would probably not be able to lift their garage door if that was the case.

The solution to this problem? Springs. Let us discuss torsion springs: A torsion spring is a spring that works by storing mechanical energy when it is twisted. Generally, 16'x7' garage doors are installed with torsion springs that must be turned 7 1/2 times, or 30 quarter turns. Twisting the spring this much puts enough energy into the spring so that when it connected to the door, the person will be able to lift it.

Other doors have different springs that are meant for that size and type of door. Because of this, the garage door should only weigh about 7-10 pounds when a person lifts it because the spring is doing the rest of the work!

etracey99
Image result for portal gun
This fancy looking device is called the Portal Gun. What does it do? Well, it is a gun that shoots portals -- one orange and one blue. If you shoot the portal gun onto two surfaces, lets say you shoot the orange portal onto the wall behind you, and the blue portal on the wall to your right, if you look at the wall to your right, you will see the side profile of your face looking at the blue portal. This is because what you see in the blue portal is through the perspective of the orange portal.
What if you walk through a portal? If you walk through the blue portal, you pop out of the orange portal and if you walk in the orange portal, you pop out of the blue one! This would be an extremely useful tool, but is it realistic?
I have seen two theories on the portal gun, let us begin with the wormhole theory:
image.jpeg.02e9566047b40e7513cdc389c75a3e49.jpeg
This is a wormhole, it is a theoretical passage through space-time. Imagine space-time being a piece of paper with two dots drawn on opposite ends of the same side of the paper. There are two ways to connect the dots that would result with the fastest route from one dot to another. 1) A straight line between the two and 2) folding the paper onto itself so that the dots are touching directly. A wormhole is the second option connecting from one dot to another or in the case of the portal gun, one portal to another. Would this work? Well if the portal gun could somehow create this circumstance, it is highly unlikely that a human would be able to walk through it because wormholes experience high instability, and it would most likely collapse upon itself. Wormhole = no good!
The second theory has to do with Quantum Entanglement. Since I am not well versed on this phenomenon, let us just think of it as if you were born as a photon and you have a twin that you have been connected to for your whole life. Regardless of the distance between you, what happens to you will happen to your twin photon and what happens to your twin photon will happen to you (thank you Washington Post for providing an explanation close to that). So in portal talk, if the portal gun had the ability to entangle the particles of any two surfaces with one surface destroying whatever it touched and another surface recreating it, the portal could work. This would happen by your body being destroyed and put back together instantly by walking through the portal. In the process however, you would become a mirrored image of yourself, which would be fine and dandy if you do not mind being backwards, but the Quantum Entanglement would also mirror all of your chemical particles which would be no good. Simply walk through another set of portals and you would be returned to your normal, and safe, form.
So could the portal gun work? If we master Quantum Entanglement, than yes. Otherwise, the portal gun is a fantasy that I am sure everybody would like! If you would like another explanation, please visit where I discovered the Quantum Entanglement theory of portal: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzRvmNaPxdA&t=306s
etracey99
Here I present to you, the Poke Ball.
Image result for pokeball
The Poke Ball is probably the most recognizable thing from Pokemon besides the popular Pokemon, Pikachu. They are very important to a Pokemon trainer's career of catching Pokemon because they are used to catch and store Pokemon. In the world of Pokemon, when the ball is thrown at a Pokemon, the Pokemon converts to energy and resides inside of the ball, until it is brought forth again by the trainer and the energy is returned to matter.
However, let us look at the size of the Poke Ball vs the size of a Pokemon in a real life setting where turning a creature into energy and back into matter is not realistic. A Poke Ball can change sizes for easy travel but in the most common form, the Poke Ball is 2.5 inches in diameter and has a volume of around 8.18 inches cubed. With this information, we can see that a Poke Ball is not very large.
There are many famous and large Pokemon in the Pokemon universe, but let us examine Onix.Image result for pokemon onix
Onix is a Rock/Ground type Pokemon with an average length of 28'10". Onix is very large, and yet, there are Pokemon even larger than it. If we were to lay Onix flat next to a line of Poke Balls, it would take 139 Poke Balls to cover the length of an Onix. That means that Onix is just under 139 times bigger than one Poke Ball not even considering the average height and width of an Onix.
As much as we would like to catch an Onix, using a Poke Ball would unfortunately not be a feasible option to do so.
etracey99

59f7942da3808_SkydivingCat-Imgur.gif.45d25f87eb48c3233903093491d46f10.gif

Now that I have gotten your attention with this gif of a kitty skydiving, welcome to the science of cats surviving large falls.

Everybody says "Cats always land on their feet!" They say this because it is not often that cats fail miserably and crash to the ground in a big fluffy mess. Cats do not land on their feet just because they are awesome, but due to their fantastic reflexes and skills, as well as their great surface area compared to their small weight.

Before we discuss these factors of kitty science, we must understand that cats like to live in trees. Cat owners most likely find their cats in high places and it is common to see a neighborhood cat on a roof of a house. Cats do what cats do, and cats do enjoy doing cat things in trees.

59f795e6871c0_SleepingKitty.jpg.5a9de982939255e15adeb2a51e927f75.jpg

Now, science! Cats have evolved over the course of their existence to survive falls from trees and other high places. Imagine a cat is hunting a squirrel to eat for lunch and it jumps from one branch to the branch the squirrel is on, and for some reason the cat misses and falls. The cat's instincts have been developed enough to turn it right side up. This sort of cat magic is observed in this awesome video:

This video is so awesome because the cat is dropped from a safe distance and every time except for one, it is dropped into a cushioned box. (No animal cruelty here!) It also shows slow motion of the cat flipping its body so it lands on its feet!

In the video, it is also easy to see the cat using its legs to lengthen the time of the impact and putting a lot of the energy from the impact into its joints like a spring. Cats have well developed legs for impact, which is another evolutionary trait they have that helps them survive their falls.

But what about that one cat that fell from a building 32 stories up and survived? Well, a human would probably not survive that kind of fall because the terminal velocity of a human is around 120 MPH and we do not have super springy legs or magic to make us upright. Kitties, on the other hand, have a terminal velocity of around 60 MPH -- this is due to the spreading of their legs as seen in the gif above, and the large surface area they have compared to their weight. 60 MPH is a lot easier to survive than 120 MPH when hitting the ground!

In all: 60 MPH terminal velocity + springy kitty legs + spread kitty legs + super kitty surface area + light kitty weight + superb kitty evolution + right side up kitty wizardry = Kitty survives!

etracey99

It has all happened to us, even the professionals face this problem: The 7-10 split. When we are faced with the 7-10 split situation, the most common action to take is to aim for one pin and accept that you will only score 9 in that frame. After all, one pin is better than no pin!

But what if you want to get both of the pins? The feeling would be extremely awesome! If you do not feel extremely awesome after you successfully get a spare in that situation, then you must be an extremely humble person because even among the professionals, there is only a 0.7% chance that a bowler will achieve a spare in the 7-10 split situation.

However! The 7-10 split is not the hardest situation that could be presented to even professional bowlers. There are actually two more pin configurations that provide an even smaller success rate than the 7-10 split:

59caf820aa110_HardestBowlingShots.thumb.jpg.9a04b6b9a4d904e17109611f37bc085d.jpg

Clearly, the "Greek Church" and the 4-6-7 split are harder shots, with a 0.3% and a 0.6% spare rate respectively. Chances are, however, that somebody who does not bowl very often will most likely never get a spare on nearly any of the configurations in the picture.

How does this relate to physics? Well, bowling has many variables in it that relate to physics. These include the type of ball that one uses, the speed of the ball by the time it strikes the pins, the amount of spin put on the ball as it is thrown, and the list goes on. It is simply interesting to see that due to the variables in the physics of bowling, that some spares are harder to make than others even when it would seem otherwise. Generally, somebody may assume that because the two pins are lined up on exact opposite corners of the lane that it is the hardest shot, but that is not true. In reality, there shots with which the physics of bowling provides an even greater challenge than that of the 7-10 split that do not seem like they would be harder. It is all up to chance... and maybe a little bit of skill.

If you would like to read more about the hardest shots in bowling: http://www.slate.com/articles/sports/sports_nut/2015/02/hardest_shot_in_bowling_it_s_not_the_7_10_split_it_s_the_greek_church.html

etracey99

Video 1:

1) a: Thinking that learning is fast.     b: Believing knowledge is composed of isolated facts.     c) Being convinced that being good at a single subject is a matter of inborn talent.     d) Thinking: "I'm really good at multi-tasking."

2) I often think that learning is fast because some of my peers in school learn faster than me; it is an irritating situation so I convince myself that I need to learn faster and it is difficult for me to do so. Also, I think that multi-tasking is not as awful as it really is. To fix these problems, I need to slow down and learn at my own pace and shut my phone off when I am working.

3) Metacognition is the awareness of understanding of a topic; in other words, it is how well a student thinks that they know the material.

Video 2:

1) The most important factor in successful learning is what the student thinks about while they are studying.

2) Deep processing is taking subjects and comparing them to others in order to further boost the learning process.

3) a: If I minimize distractions, such as eliminating my phone from the workplace, I can focus more on my school work and retain the information at a higher level.     b: Developing my metacognition will help me make sure that I actually know the information instead of assuming that I know the material.     c: Relating topics to one another will help teach me how the topics are interacting, and why certain things work the way they do.     d: Actually thinking really hard and focusing only on the work that I am doing will help me retain information and remember it later on.

Video 3:

1) a: Elaboration; In the classroom, I can analyze how different topics within physics relate to each other and why.     b: Distinctiveness; Discover the difference between different topics and even smaller differences between similar problems.     c: Personal; Ask myself if I have seen the physics in action before, or have seen a similar question last year.     d: Appropriate to Retrieval and Application; Ask questions such as: Can I recall the information? Have I reviewed the practice questions? If I have not, I'd better take a look at them!     e: Automaticity; Practice topics until they become so easy to complete that it is like riding a bike.     f: Overlearning; Study the extra five minutes necessary to be able to recognize the situation five seconds faster in an exam or lab.

Video 4:

1) a: What is question generation?     b: How could question generation be applied?     c: What are ways you could practice retrieving information in a way that a teacher would expect?     d: What are the three functions of note taking?     e: What is the purpose of checking yourself vs the textbook or your notes?     f: What was a time that you used question generation to solve a problem?

2) Taking notes will engage the note taker in the video and is requires a lot of effort. The full concentration will set the mind directly onto the video. Taking notes of a video, like in class, encourages the note taker to learn and pay attention because the note taker has to want to pay attention and want to learn the information.

3) I believe that organizing a study group that meets often will not benefit me very well. This is simply because people do not often want to go to a study group to study, they want to go to a study group so they do not need to study or to get the answers out of somebody else in the group. I get lots of group time in school every day and if I really need help, I have many resources and the means necessary to contact somebody I know to help me. In addition, I learn at a different pace than other people, so I will stick to the time in school I have to work with others, and get work done by myself at home, only to get help through Mr. Fullerton's videos or messaging a friend if need be.

Video 5:

1) a: Avoid panicking!     b: Do not go into denial!     c: Do not study the same way if it did not work the first time around.     d: Do not wait until the end of the semester to try to improve my grade.     e: Do not skip class to focus on another class; go to all classes I can!     f: Do not fall behind while waiting to find time to catch up; just catch up and do not suffer!     g: Do not cram at the last minute, studying and work is made to be done over time!

2) a: Examine how I prepared and be honest with myself.     b: Review the exam and compare my errors with notes already taken.     c: Communicate with my professor.     d: Examine my study habits and react appropriately if my habits are not habits that will benefit me.     e: Develop a plan for my school work and studying that will benefit me in the future.

3) a: Commit time and quality effort into my work.     b: Minimize distractions in the workplace.     c: Attend class; class is where we learn!    d: Do not begin to slide; 'pain is temporary', as Mr. Tytler always says. Fight through it, and it will benefit us in the long run.     e: Set realistic goals for myself; do what I know I can do!

etracey99

Everybody has things that they do and carry with them that make them unique. Some swim, some like plane rides, some people sky dive and some people learn faster than others. Me? I run, hate riding a plane, despise heights and I try my best to learn thoroughly and thoughtfully -- which is not often the fastest process. Since seventh grade, I have been running track because I always felt that I was able to move myself towards the finish line a little bit faster than most. I have, from my experience in seventh grade, developed a thirst to run faster and faster. Now, in senior year, I have the opportunity to win sectionals with three of my friends in a 400 meter dash relay; a sectionals victory has been a great goal of mine for a very long time now, and my hard work and persistence have now paid off. The very same hard work and persistence have contributed towards success in school and in Boy Scouts. I have learned to enjoy learning, and I am only weeks away from achieving Eagle Scout just as my Grandfather and older brother have before me. I enjoy challenges, so for my senior year of high school, I have figured that I should try my hardest to conquer yet another challenge: AP Physics C! This is only one of the reasons which I chose to take this class, I also chose to take this class because I enjoyed taking Physics last year and I plan on majoring in a field of engineering in my future. This year, I am excited to learn alongside some of my favorite peers and understand a topic not many high school students get the chance to take advantage of. However, this also introduces some anxiousness along with the difficulty; I am concerned that all of the work I am taking on this year will be whelming but, at the same time, I also believe that with this hard work, I will put myself in a great position for my upcoming years of college. I am hoping to have a great year in AP Physics C, and I wish the same for my friends, too!

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