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  1. I'm a big fan of sound. Music for me is a nice blend of science and art, and I take strides to better my understanding of it occasionally. And occasionally, I enjoy listening to chiptune songs - 8-bit music, as you may call it. A typical sound wave is sinusoidal, meaning it looks like a sine/cosine curve. This is the natural state of a pressure fluctuation that is sound. However, sound waves are (obviously) not all sine waves. Because of the constructive/destructive interference of waves, waves with a new shape - or timbre - like with a square or saw wave, essentially keeping the dominant frequency (pitch) of the note while still changing how it sounds. What is really happening when this is going on is that, in some ways, the frequency is changing, but just not the dominant frequency. In music, an octave occurs when one note has double the frequency of another, and by changing the amount of sound energy contained in a certain frequency that is an integer multiple of the base frequency (be it an octave or a different multiple), you can change the timbre without distorting pitch. This is the fundemental basis lying behind the Fourier transform, a method for breaking down a period function into an (often infinite) sum of sine waves with different frequencies. With bar-based music visualizers, the same things is happening, with wave shapes being analyzed for the frequencies they contain. But this phenomenom is what makes music sound the way it does, and it demonstrates that wave interference can have some interesting and melodic effects.
  2. A lot of games let you fly planes, but when was the last time one let you fly a rocket? While if that has been what you've been looking for in your time-wasting pursuits, wait no longer, for Kerbal Space Program lets you do just that. As the director/god of the aptly named Kerbal Space Program, you have the ability to launch probes, satellites, landers, space planes, and a whole plethora of fancy little stuff. But behind all of this glamour comes (simplified) rocket science. Much like real rocket scientists, you have to design a craft with fuel and power constraints in mind. Going to the Mun may not be as trivial a task as some may hope. If you prefer fast paced action, this game probably isn't for you. But if you're willing to think a bit, ponder questions about choosing an engine with a larger thrust to weight ratio versus one with a higher specific impulse, or how you should stage your creation to successfully land on Minmus and return home safely, this might just be your cup of tea. I recommend checking it out.
  3. Boomerangs to some can be quite mysterious. One may ask, "why do they fly the way they do?" But fear not, for I'm here to explain them to you. At first glance, a boomerang might appear flat to the unsuspecting eye. But alas, for a boomerang to return to your hand, it must actually act a bit like a helicopter rotor, with one side angled up one way and the other the other way, so that when it spins it creates lift. But when you think of a helicopter, you think of something going up and down, not around in a circle. What you don't consider is that lateral movement of the boomerang cause air to flow past one side of the boomerang faster than the other as it rotates, create unequal lift, causing it to turn (this means two things: one, boomerangs are thrown vertically/almost vertically as opposed to horizontally, because that would cause more of a loop-de-loop, and it also displays one of the major shortcomings of single-rotor helicopters: they suffer from this same issue). It continues to turn as it flies, eventually creating the loop we all know and love. So if you're making a boomerang, keep this in mind: angle the fins. And for legal purposes I do not support the use of boomerangs as a projectile weapon. Thank you and goodnight.
  4. View File AP Physics 1 Essentials - An APlusPhysics Guide AP* Physics 1 Essentials is an easy-to-read guide to the entire AP Physics 1 course, featuring more than 600 worked-out problems with full solutions and deeper understanding questions. AP Physics 1 Essentials covers all major topics included in the AP Physics 1 course, including: kinematics, dynamics, momentum, impulse, gravity, uniform circular motion, rotation, work, energy, power, mechanical waves, sound, electrostatics, and circuits. AP Physics 1 Essentials is integrated with the APlusPhysics.com website, which includes online question and answer forums, videos, animations, and supplemental problems to help you master the essential concepts of physics. This book is designed to assist physics students in their high school AP Physics courses both as a guide throughout the course as well as a review book to assist in end-of-course exam preparation. Its focus is on providing the bare bones, essential concepts necessary for success in the course in a straightforward and easy-to-read manner, leaving development of in-depth problem solving and lab work to the classroom, where it is most effective. In short, this is not intended as a substitute for a standard textbook or course, but rather as an invaluable supplementary resource. New 2nd edition includes more than 90 AP-style problems to test your understanding and help prepare you for the AP Physics 1 Exam. Additional supplemental AP-1 level problems are available on the APlusPhysics site. Note: This is a license for a digital download of the PDF version for use by one person only on up to five electronic devices. This document may not be printed, edited, re-distributed, re-sold, or licensed to any other user. Once the file has been downloaded no refunds will be given. *AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which does not sponsor or endorse this product. Submitter FizziksGuy Submitted 11/07/2013 Category Books  
  5. When taking corners quickly, the biggest worry most drivers should have is slipping and losing control of the car. This happens when a driver takes the corner too fast. The physics of taking a flat corner depends on the equation vmax = Sqrt(mu*r*g). mu, the coefficient of static friction, is constant, as is g, the acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, a driver trying to take a corner as quickly as possible would like to make the radius of the turn as large as possible to allow for a higher vmax, keeping his car from slipping at higher speeds. But how? Doesn't a road have a defined radius? Yes, and no. The picture explains it. The arrow in the figure is what's called a "line" this is the best possible way for a car to take a corner at the highest speed. The line a regular driver would take is very curved, mimicking the road, and not allowing for a high vmax due to the small radius. A race car driver would take a better line. The racer's line is significantly less curved than the regular driver's line, making the radius much larger, allowing for a higher vmax . The racecar driver starts and ends wide of the inside and hits the apex of the turn, allowing for the least curved line possible. To conclude, when trying to take a corner quickly, the driver of the car should start out wide, hit the apex, and end wide, causing a relatively high radius and a relatively high vmax, without having the car slip off the road.
  6. Yooooooo check this out. I was chillin in my studio and i had to open a window (for circulation). As i opened it, a gust of wind hit me in the facial region. But i thought nothing of it. No one ever does. Ever. WIND is overlooked all the time even-though it occurs pretty much all the time. WIND, in its smallest components is simply a MASSIVE amount of mostly oxygen and nitrogen molecules flying around due to diffrences in atmospheric pressure. So, by feeling a gentile wind on your skin, your actually experiencing millions of oxygen atoms smashing into you. But say there's other things in the air around you. Like dirt, or smaller particles like dust, and Smoke. Those particles also smash against you. Ow Now lets talk about pressure. If you've taken chemestry or physics you know that: (p1v1)/t1 = (p2v2)/t2 where p=pressure, v=volume, and t=temperature. This equation represents the fact that within a closed system, pressure and volume have an indirect relationship (as one goes up, the other goes down). Along with this, pressure and temperature have a direct relationship. This being said, if the atmospheric pressure in a certain region increases, the massive amount of atoms making up the air around you will be pushed away from said region... CREATING WIND. whoa. With love, you're friend -Shabba
  7. If a random star were to appear in our skies, and you asked an astronomer how far away it was, they couldn't give you an immediate answer. One thing I always took for granted was how these scientists were able to map the night sky, give us a detailed perspective on what was out there in the final frontier. Some of these methods (like how to determine how far away a star is) can be somewhat interesting. Using the right math, many people could triangulate the position of an object, as long there are a few known variables and objects in the field of view. However, on Earth, to calculate how far away a star is, through distances spanning hundreds of light years, it is very difficult, because the angles which are being dealt with are very small, and hence prone to error. However, given a 6-month span, our orbit around the sun gives us a much better distance to do this calculation with. Knowing such things as the precise time, radius of orbit around the sun, and the positions of other stars in the sky, we can calculate relatively well star distances. However, this only really works up to 400 light years (thanks, HowStuffWorks), because, while the 150 million kilometer difference in our position is a lot, with a star 10 light years away (still fairly close), the difference in angle is still miniscule, clocking in at just a few hundred-thousandths of a degree. Which is to says, that while the distances we get aren't perfectly accurate, for what they're worth they are pretty dang good. There are different, more spectroscopic and more accurate methods of determining a star's distance, that rely on standard gathered data for stars that work at all distances. But before this data was collected, really the only way to gather this data was through triangulation. That, simply put, means that olden astronomers, those like Galileo, were the ones doing all this tricky math. Cool stuff.
  8. Escape velocity, at the surface of the earth, is just about a whopping 11.2 km/s. This means that, to completely escape the force of earth's gravity, from the surface of the earth with the only outside for being gravity, you would need to be going this speed to escape (ignoring, of course, drag - drag forces at those speeds would rip a spaceship apart). So on my way to physics last friday I thought about how to reach those speeds, without the use of costly rocket fuel. One (although initially very costly solution) could be to have a giant underground tunnel, throughout the entire surface of the earth, that would accelerate an object over time using electromagnetism until it reaches those speeds. As long as the tube is in a vacuum, it is more than possible to do this. In order to keep an object in a circular orbit, we know that the centripetal acceleration must equal mv^2/r, and this net acceleration can only come from two other sources - gravity, at a constant 9.81 m/s^2, and the force generated by our electromagnetic coils. Assuming v is terminal velocity, E is the electromagnetic force, and r is approximately the radius of the earth, we get (11.2 * 10^3 m/s)^2/(6.371 * 10^6) = 9.81 + E. Solving for this, we can determine that E = 9.88 m/s^2, only a bit more than the acceleration due to gravity. If you could somehow construct this tunnel, it would be possible to bring objects up to speeds as high as this. Most of the time, for typical space missions, it wouldn't have to be quite so large anyways. The real issue is getting in out of the tunnel, and through the atmosphere. Going straight into the air at such speeds would destroy a fair chunk of the surrounding area, and most certainly the payload. You would have to create a giant vacuum tunnel through the atmosphere if you wanted this to work, which not only would look strange (it would be technically 'flat' - tangential to the point of release for the most part), but be very difficult to build. But in any case, it's wishful thinking.
  9. Hi guys.... This is Rafey Hashmi. I live in India and thus, have quite a different course pattern than most of the foreign courses. I am in love with physics (theoretical) and thus, am aiming for an undergraduate course in physics in top universities across the world. Also guys, I am an anime and manga lover. I read manga's of Naruto, Bleach and One piece. I also am greatly interested in literature and symbology. I found this website just recently and believe it is a good platform to understand the courses followed worldwide, as well as to make friends of same interest group. So, guys would you help me ????
  10. oxy126

    Makin' Noise

    Sometimes I like to sit back and pump some jams. Before the invention of all this modern technology such as speakers and cds and digital audio, such things just weren't possible. Music had to be performed. But with the invention of electrical speakers that all changing. People were able to finally jam out. The common speaker relies on the principles of electromagnetism. In the center is a magnet (attached to a speaker cone), surrounded by a coil. As the current through the coil fluctuates, the magnet and cone move, vibrating to reproduce the encoded sound. However, all things have inertia, so it can take time to reverse the momentum of the cone, creating a loss in audio quality in the event that the speaker cone is too heavy. Similarly, if the cone isn't stiff, it will delay its movement and creating quality losses that way as well. These losses are most noticeable with "harsher" waveforms (such as squarewave, which, as the name implies changes position very quickly at wave boundaries), or with more complex sounds, such as violin or saxophone. Because of these drawbacks good sound systems often have multiple speakers, all tuned to a different frequency. Subwoofers are typically larger because lower frequencies are less audible, and lower frequency waveforms are easier to reproduce in terms of speaker design. Tweeters are smaller for the opposite reasons - they need better accuracy because higher pitches involving larger shifts in momentum with respect to time, so they are typically smaller to achieve this. Also, because every material has a resonant frequency (where it will absorb a lot of energy), the materials in each are tailored to avoid this. Next time you're cruisin', bumpin' along to your favorite song, remember this. And invest in a better sound system.
  11. CHECK THIS OUT It has come to my attention that a man by the name of "A$AP Ferg" has crafted a musical piece of art to help represent who i am and what i stand for. Ferg's song, Shabba, is a wonderful depiction of my everyday life; and for that reason exactly i decided to make a blog post regarding the physics of my dope style. Consider this: Ferg raps that he wears eight gold rings, four gold chains, and one gold tooth in an attempt to be like me. Lets take a closer look as this. Gold, being a fairly dense metal, is not light. Gold rings can weigh anywhere from 3 to 7 Grams (For this example lets say a single ring weighs 4 grams). Gold chains can really be almost any weight you want, but a sensible chain id wear would weigh about 40 grams. Finally, a gold tooth could weigh about 3 grams. Lets do some simple calculations: Gold rings: 4g x 8 = 32g -----> .032 kg Gold chains: 40g x 4 = 160g -----> .16 kg Gold tooth: 3g -----> .006kg All together ferg wears about .198kg of gold as he cops my swag. But lets go a little further: if we take the weight we found above and multiply it by the acceleration due to gravity (10 m/s/s) you'll find that A$AP Ferg is weighed down by a constant net force of about 1.98 Newtons just due to the gold he wears. Heres a list of some foods that weight about the same amount. 2 apples 2 hamburgers 4 sticks of butter 1 large bar of chocolate 4 chicken fingers (Arby's) 2 bagels (Bruegger's) 4 scrambled eggs (McDonalds) Among those, here's some amounts of US currency that also weighs about 2 newtons. 204 dollar bills 100 dimes 40 nickels No one cares about pennys In conclusion, I think it goes without saying that the amount of gold A$AP Ferg wears is impressive. Imagine if you had to carry around 4 scrambled eggs with you all day every day. Not only would that get annoying, but it'd be SUPER messy! I hope you enjoyed this Shabba- Related physics post. If you would like to hear the song that i am referring to in this post (Shabba- A$AP Ferg) you'll have to find that on your own. It can not be posted on this site and shouldn't be viewed by anyone underage due to the explicit nature of language used. I may be Shabba Ranks but i still have class! With love, your friend -Shabba
  12. oxy126


    Hi there. I'm a new Physics AP-C student, and I would like to tell you a little bit about myself. I'm an avid programmer/science enthusiast, and am looking towards entering a scientific or science-related field. I (as one may assume) like science and math, and more leisurely things like playing video games or disc golfing. Things of the sort. The reason I'm taking Physics AP-C this year is because I'm interested in learning more about physics and I want to solve more challenging problems using my physics knowledge. I enjoy calculus and I think it will be cool to see some of the applications of what I learn. As a result, I hope to not only hone my calculus knowledge but get some useful information on specific areas of physics and, in general, how to approach difficult, complex problems in an effort to solve them. I always enjoyed electricity and magnetism, and I'm looking forward to that and hopefully being able to dream up some cool uses for my new knowledge. However, no matter what we learn, I think I'll be excited just to know it. So I'm hoping to have fun!
  13. Let me start by saying that I love most topics regarding math and science. I always have. As a kid, I grew up with the mentality that math and science were the building blocks of the natural world; and for that reason, as I grew older I saw it almost as my inevitable goal to expand what I know in said fields. In AP-C Physics I hope to accomplish part of that goal, that being to absorb all that there is to know regarding physics (and math). This year I'm excited to have the opportunity to learn, in depth, what AP-B physics only brushed the surface of. With this in mind however, I'm well aware of the difficulty of the class. That being said, i'm slightly anxious to see how each test and the AP exam itself play out. I'm confident that i'll survive though. After all, i am Shabba Ranks. I hope any of my future posts can somehow aid any readers who also hope to expand their knowledge. With love, your friend -Shabba
  14. We all knew this would come eventually, from a person like myself. Personally, I love pokemon videogames- they're fun, entertaining, and you can do so many different things in them. Much better that the televisions shows, for sure. While I was pondering how to tie in my nerdy-ness into a physics post, I came up with this. Hopefully it's not too terrible So, to begin, let us dive into the game itself-- literally. Within this "small" (by the standards when it was first made, at least) pokemon Gold cartridge lies a mess of wires, chips, resisters, etc, and the battery that powers it. It's a complex circut, basically! When inserted into the game boy, a current is sent out into the game, reading all the information stored on it as the game loads up. Physics is why it works. Physics is the reason that the electrical currents move through the game, why the save data is read, and why you can even play it on the gamboy in the first place. End of story. Not a single videogame would work without physics. While playing the actual coded game, as well, physics is at work. In some games, logic doesn't seem to be at play- the physics of it doesn't match up. Pokemon games are actually fairly realistic, compared to some other video games. When you jump off the ledge, you fall down. When you throw the pokeball, it doesn't float into the sky- it continues on it's path and hits the pokemon. In some of the newer games, when crossing a log, you can fall off. I may be tired and rambling at this point, but that's because I can. In some games, like Harvest Moon, there is no logic. Crops growing in less than a month? Cows getting pregnent with a potion? Teleporting? I dare you to go and play one of your videogames and analize it. Is the physic within it logical, or not? Take some time to take in the world around you- none of it would be there without physics. It's just that important!
  15. Through out my years as a trumpeter, I have fallen in love with my instrument. I really never gave much though as to why, or how, it plays the notes that it does. Now, with my knowledge of physics, it all makes perfect sense. The trumpet is a precise instrument; one dent, clog, or hole could ruin the beautiful sound that may come out of it. The trumpet is made up of multiple parts, each critical to its performance: When first learning to play the trumpet, the hardest part is learning how to buzz your lips in the correct way to get a clean sound, and then how to adjust the pitch as you play. This is sound waves at it's finest. By buzzing your lips (embouchure is the correct term), you cause the mouth piece to buzz, therefore sending a sound wave bouncing away through the air in the trumpet. The vibrations carry through the lead pipe until they reach the valves (refer back to the diagram). This is where something cool can happen; You can change the sound of the note by pushing down different valves. It's how you differentiate between a B, D, F, etc on the trumpet. This actually occurs because, with each valve pushed down, the path of the air is altered, becoming either longer or shorter to change the note. After that, the vibrations continue up until they reach the bell, and are diffracted off into the room to produce the music! There is also a way to change pitch without touching the valves, as well. By adjusting your embouchure- that is, your facial muscles or mouth- you can change the pitch to be higher or lower. This is what distinguishes the middle G, low C, middle C, and high E from one another, because all four of those notes are played opened valved (none being pressed). While it takes a while to get good enough to hit and slur up to high notes, like all else it just takes practice. The physics involved in the trumpet will make it happen if you can supply the vibration, pitch, and air flow. Putting all this together, you can do scales as simple as this: Or many other scales (sharps, minors, flats, etc). There is more I could rant about with the trumpet, but I have a dragging suspicion you are bored by now The trumpet is a beautiful example of Physics that, until this year, I really wasn't able to appreciate. I love my trumpet, yes, but it's awesome to be able to apply what I learned in order to TRULY understand why I can do what I can with my instrument. I'll just leave you with one more thing
  16. Okay, so in the quest for knowledge of physics i have come up with the worst sport of all time, physics surfing, clicking on physics in stumbleupon and trying to reach the end, gathering as much info as possible. This will never catch on though. So i decided to make a post about the physics OF surfing instead the Physics of surfing is actually kind of cool, relying on fluid resistance (much like that of air resistance) going upward in the circular motion of the wave (or arc motion of the wave) until the surfer's gravitational force matches that of the Frictional force of the water. The speed of the surfer depends on both the speed of the wave and the angle of the surfboard, because as the surfboard angles there is less surface area, and thus less friction between the board and the water, causing the surfer to either speed up, or in worst case scenario, break the surface of the water, or catch the wrong current and wipe out. This is similarly experienced in wake-boarding, para-sailing, and windsurfing, although the upward force to match that of the water, along with the lateral force (supplied by that of the water in surfing) are supplied by different sources leading to a similar effect. i dont know why, but with the variety of land sports and the physics of each, i would think that not all water-board sports would be the same. but from a physics perspective at the surface, they are all EXTREMELY similar.
  17. In the classroom and around school I know that you mostly know me for my fedora, but on the karate floor i cant wear a hat so, I'm kinda stuck with these curls. Hilariously enough, sensei zak was joking about how my head always comes close to the ground on arials in front of the white belt class, then remarked "no, he just has a helmet for hair." I actually wanted to see that if my head and curls really were springs, what would the spring constant have to be on on giant spring to bounce me back, considering the curls come about an inch and a half off my head, and i mass in at about 70 kg. when just standing on my head. i would have about 700N of force pushing back on my head, which needs to be made up for by the force of the spring. F=kx x=1.5 inches=3.81 cm=.0381 m 700=.0381k my hair would have to have a spring constant of 18372.7 N/m, way over anything we had in labs in physics, let alone made by my hair, or using it as a "helmet" but hey, its funny to for the kids to hear, and it was a fun day doing all those tricks teaching my students (yes, a student can have other students )
  18. This is by far one of my favorite tricks to do along with butterfly kick and butterfly twists, (they link up really easily) but a parafuso actually shows how well the human body takes linear momentum and converts it to angular momentum but adding the upward force. The ginga (pronounced like jinga) is the building and wind up guard of this martial art. it has the leg back on one side and the arm back on the other. This basically gives range of motion to throw parts of the body into motion with more anticipation and control. But the first thing you'll notice is the 180 turn before he jumps. This turn causes the initial linear-angular transition as the hips are bent forward. Next he throws his arms into the angle to gain momentum from their mass, and the legs are swung around until either both can land (regular) or the first leg to take off is tucked back and you over turn the kick into a 540. This trick is done 'perfectly' when the middle of the kick can be as far back as if one were lying down, where the transition from linear to angular momentum would be the most efficient, and also where the most height can be reached by the kick itself, allowing the momentum afterwards to carry through to the next motion.
  19. Okay, so in the quest for knowledge of physics i have come up with the worst sport of all time, physics surfing, clicking on physics in stumbleupon and trying to reach the end, gathering as much info as possible. This will never catch on though. So i decided to make a post about the physics OF surfing instead the Physics of surfing is actually kind of cool, relying on fluid resistance (much like that of air resistance) going upward in the circular motion of the wave (or arc motion of the wave) until the surfer's gravitational force matches that of the Frictional force of the water. The speed of the surfer depends on both the speed of the wave and the angle of the surfboard, because as the surfboard angles there is less surface area, and thus less friction between the board and the water, causing the surfer to either speed up, or in worst case scenario, break the surface of the water, or catch the wrong current and wipe out. This is similarly experienced in wake-boarding, para-sailing, and windsurfing, although the upward force to match that of the water, along with the lateral force (supplied by that of the water in surfing) are supplied by different sources leading to a similar effect. i dont know why, but with the variety of land sports and the physics of each, i would think that not all water-board sports would be the same. but from a physics perspective at the surface, they are all EXTREMELY similar.
  20. Okay, so today i was skateboarding, thinking about blog posts, but also thinking about all the forces and such that go into just doing a few tricks. Such as the kickflip, where the board spins on the lengthwise axis (for those of you not skateboarding people). It needs the physics of the ollie, which is downward force on the tail, force upwards because of the fulcrum of one of the axles, and forward momentum from pushing with the front foot, for an inertial fulcrum that rotates the board up into the air. From there, the rotation is caused by a downward force on the edge of the board, but, the force often isn't so much downward as it is across, similar to how the ollie levels the board not by pushing down, but across. That's the part that blew my mind, most of the forces and tricks using a skateboard are only possible because of the increase in friction from the grip tape, making the entire idea of skateboarding reliant on friction, not just with rolling down a hill and stopping, but every trick involved NEEDS friction to be done. Kinda just something cool i thought of.
  21. For those who follow or play lacrosse, hockey, and even soccer know of bar down goals. A bar down goal is one of the coolest goals a person in one of these sports can score, it's where the ball hits the crossbar on the shot and goes straight down or back into the net. It can get a team hyped up in a matter of seconds, but how does it happen? To start, why doesn't the goal come flying up with a powerful enough shot? Well, knowing the laws of momentum and motion, a lacrosse ball, or hockey puck, hitting the crossbar of an iron goal at 80 miles per hour won't move the goal much, as much momentum as the object may have. The equation p=mv proves that a lacrosse ball or hockey puck 1/100th the mass of a lacrosse or hockey goal won't do much damage and move the goals, and is the primary reason a bar down shot looks so good. The ball accelerates downward off of the crossbar at 9.81 m/s^2, and since the weight of the goal is so great in comparison to the puck or ball, the crossbar actually provides a force for the rubber ball or puck to accelerate off of. Next time you watch a lacrosse or hockey game and see a bar down goal, remember the physics of it that makes it so cool.
  22. The drinking bird novelty item has been around for decades, but it's seemingly simple design is deceptive. Carefully calculated physics principles have gone into the creation of this toy. Mostly, it utilizes energy conversion, operating as a heat engine that changes heat energy from water into mechanical work. The drinking bird design is made up of several important components: -two glass bulbs of equal size attached on either end of a glass tube -a fuzzy, absorbent material to cover the bird's head -two plastic legs connected to the body with a pivot -a small amount of methylene chloide (industrial paint stripper and solvent) liquid in the bottom glass bulb -either a red or a blue hat, depending on the model For the toy to work, the felt tip on the bird's beak must be dipped into a cup of water, which then allows it to absorb a small amount of that water. As the water in its beak evaporates, the temperature in it goes down, which causes the methylene chloride vapor to condense. When this happens, liquid from the bottom bulb is forced upward, toward the head and beak portion. Then, as liquid enters the head, the bird becomes top-heavy and slowly begins to tip forward once again. As the drinking bird does tip, the rest of the liquid goes to the bird's head and the bottom portion of the tube isn't submerged any more. Vapor then travels back up the tube which will then cause the head to drain of liquid again. As the bottom glass bulb is filled with liquid again, the bird becomes more bottom heavy and the entire process begins again.
  23. Neon lights are very common on signs for business that stay open late, and everyone has seen the recognizable "open" or "closed" sign during their late night runs to Taco Bell. These lights are very simple in how they work, and use less energy than traditional light bulbs. Most neon light tubes are filled with gases such as argon and neon, which are lighted when the atoms of the gas emit photons. This happens when electricity is sent through the tube, exciting the electrons in the gas, making them jump up to a higher energy level, and when they drop back down they release photons in the form of light that we can see. Neon lamps and lights are very simple, and if you would like to know more about them and in greater detail, view the video posted in the link below. http://youtu.be/zPDoBjlpxXY
  24. Scientists have proven that sound does affect our health and healing on a cellular level. Music can reduce stress and stimulate cognitive processing and memory in measurable, substantive, and lasting ways. Advanced Brain Technology a brain health and educational company whose therapeutic programs harness the properties of sound to improve individuals listening, learning, and communication skills. Health care professionals said that listening to music appeared to increase patients tolerance for pain and sped up their surgical recovery times. Music seemed to enhance premature infants growth rates in pediatric ICU's. In special programs in schools for troubled youth, drumming circles have had a remarkable impact. College students who listened to Mozart's music did better on temporal/spatial tests taken shortly after the listening experience. Music can animate people with Parkinson's disease who cannot otherwise move, give words to stroke patients who cannot otherwise speak, and calm and organize people whose memories are ravaged by Alzheimer's or amnesia. Music is an obsession at the human heart of nature, perhaps even more fundamental to our species than language. Every noise in our environment has the ability to change our mood, decrease our productivity, and even affect our health. We use music and silence throughout our day to not only change how we feel but alter how we physically function. The force of music improves lives. Composers exploit the way our brains make sense of the world. We are more musically equipped than we think because our brains are hardwired for music. Music can improve productivity, create collegial environment at the work place, improve social, physical, and academic functioning, reduce pre-operative stress, and speed up recovery time. "For a few moments music makes us larger than we really are, and the world more orderly than it really is. That is cause enough for ecstasy." -Robert Jourdain, author and composer Sound is a vibration. It has the power to affect us literally from the atoms up. Certain sounds, provided in the right context and combination can organize our neural activity, stimulate our bodies, retune our emotions, and thus allow us to be calmer and in a more productive emotional state. Sound has the power to organize grains of sand scattered randomly across a flat surface. http://www.healingatthespeedofsound.com/link2/ If sound has this effect on material world around you, imagine how it can affect your body and brain. This next video is a recording of the perfect dose of sonic caffeine, performed. http://www.healingatthespeedofsound.com/link3/ Performed by the Buena Vista Social Club. this is specifically for the sleepy student. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JEdf7XsV5g Research showed arts-involved students usually perform 16 to 18 percentage points better than their peers who are not involved in the arts. The same study also showed a correlation between involvement in music and proficiency in math. The perception of music in the human brain shows the cascade of activity, from the eardrum to cells deep inside the brain that regulate emotion, is set off when we hear music. Our musical preferences begin before we are born, and the musical experience is built as we age. We are all more musically equipped than we think because our brains are hardwired for music. Some leading experts have long held that music is a decoration living parasitically on the fringe of human nature. Music is an obsession at the heart of human nature. Listening to music as you work out is one way to see the amazing affects of sound. One can get better results from an aerobic routine by listening to upbeat music with strong rhythmic beat. The strong rhythmic beat creates a pulse like sensation in the body which is like the beating of a heart, an encore to stimulate us to keep going, and work harder. When you oxygenate body through working out or doing yoga--my favorite, your ears become more sensitive. Focus on the rhythm. If you continuously do this while you work out, with the same playlist of music, your ears will actually remember the pulse of each song and you won't have to turn up your music as loud your brain will be playing it. This is the power of habituation to use in protecting hearing. Using the same playlist to exercise in, you will internalize the music and may exercise in silence, with the music running through your head. Music you love releases pleasure-giving endorphin's, with other biological reactions caused by your increased heart rate and breathing, drive you to work harder and prolong your routine. Another important aspect of the music is a stimulating tempo. Upbeat music stimulates adrenaline flow and songs with lyrics distract the mind from the effort your muscles are doing while you work out. This will improve performance in exercise and physical activity.
  25. Have you ever been doing chores or showering and wondered how the water comes out of the shower head or faucet? Well, if you have, this blog entry will explain the basics of how they work. A faucet is a device that regulates the flow of water in a system, such as a house or school, and without them, water would be flowing constantly out of pipes be almost useless in everyday life. SImple machines work to control the pressure and flow of water, including levers and screws. The pressure inside of water pipes is much higher than the pressure of the air outside of the tube, which allows the water to flow up from the ground, against the force of gravity, and out into the kitchen sink. However, in the way, are small openings and valves, such as check valves, which do not allow the flow of water back past the valve. This keeps the water flowing at a normal pace, only to be blocked by more valves, like the ones in faucets, which must be manually turned to allow the flow of water, from hot and cold pipes. Next time you use your shower or wash the dishes, remember the physics and engineering principles of the flow of water, and how all that work is done just to clean your hair or a glass from lunch.

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