Jump to content

Leaderboard


Popular Content

Showing content with the highest reputation since 11/14/2010 in Blog Entries

  1. 3 points
    Last weekend I crossed the border into Toronto, Canada for a "girls weekend" with my mom and sister. Our main purpose of going there was for a yoga convention for all the yogies of the world. While at this convention, we of course experienced tons of physics! When doing different yoga poses, we experienced the great phenomenon-gravity- at work. When "ohming" or saying "namaste" we experienced sound waves, and the vibration they produced so that we could here them. But when we weren't doing yoga, we somehow still experienced physics! By dropping tons of money at the 3-story mall, The Eaton Centre, we experienced the force that our heavy shopping bags created on our arms. When taking the elevator to a new floor of designer stores, we experienced physics there and how we felt heavier when going up, but lighter when going down due to acceleration. We lastly saw physics when we hit the pool/hot tub in our wonderful hotel. The jets pushed water out creating different waves or bubbles. We also created waves by jumping into the pool. Depending on the type of jump or how hard it was, the amplitude changed all the while carrying the energy we put forth by jumping in. This weekend adventure was full of physics just like everything else!
  2. 2 points
    ...(But probably not.) In light of the holiday season, I bring to you a Christmas-themed blog post, with a pinch of love and some hints of gravitation. I came home from school today and stepped into the living room, astutely noticing that the Christmas tree had fallen. Obviously, the first thing that ran through my mind was that gravity did this. I mean, gravity's everywhere - it's a pretty likely culprit. You may or may not notice the lamp just above where the tree fell, but I believe it to be of great importance in this investigation. I have deduced that, at any time from 10:00 AM to 2:00 PM on Tuesday, December 16, the gravitational attraction between the tree and lamp created a gravitational orbit that forced the tree out of its holder, and onto the cold ground. Let's take a look. First off, the tree had to begin in static equilibrium - it was still at first. Due to Newton's first law, an outside force had to act upon this tree, and I do believe that the placement of the lamp near this tree provided an IMMENSE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE. So let's dive in. We know that the magnitude of this force is given by GMm/r^2, where G is a constant, M is the tree, m is the lamp, and r is the distance between the two. G = 6.67E-11 Nm^2/kg^2, we know this. The average mass in kilograms for a Christmas tree is about 70 pounds at this height of tree, or 31.75 kg. The mass of the lamp is about 8 pounds, or 3.63 kg. I can already see this force is about to be massive. And the distance between the center of mass of the tree and lamp? About 5.5 feet, or 1.68 meters. Time to calculate. F = [(6.67E-11 Nm^2/kg^2)(31.75 kg)(3.63kg)]/((1.68m)^2) Therefore, the force due to gravity is a whopping 2.72 NANONEWTONS. This incredibly large force undoubtedly caused the displacement of the tree; therefore, gravity ruined Christmas. You may be subconsciously pointing out the holes in my story, like how did a gravitational orbit just occur if the lamp was there the whole time, or perhaps just pointing out the fact that two objects on Earth will likely only apply negligible forces to each other. Fair enough, but keep in mind that there is absolutely no other worldly explanation for this phenomenon. So it's either gravity, or ghosts. You decide. Or maybe the cat just knocked it over.
  3. 2 points
    Physics is involved in pretty much everything in life. Throughout my school day I experience all kinds of physics. First period I have Italian where I sit down (along with the rest of my classes) and I am applying a force to the chair and the chair is applying a force to me because of Newtons third law. Second period when I get my math test score back I hit my head against the desk which is also applying a force to the desk and the desk applies one right back. Third period is art class where I gravity is pushing my eyelids down while I struggle to stay awake. Fourth period is APUSH which could be compared to a black hole. Black holes have tons to do with physics. A black hole is a point in space with so much gravity that not even light can escape and that is most definitely APUSH... Fifth and 6th periods are the best of the day because I do not have classes these periods so I can do my homework. Seventh period is English where I push down on my pencil and it leaves a mark on the many papers I have to write. Gravity also pushes down on that pencil. Eighth period could be the first period of a double for physics or if I am lucky its gym. In gym there is so much physics. A ball is thrown and is a projectile motion. Gravity acts on the ball at all times. If were running in gym we push down on the ground with our legs and the ground pushes us back allowing us to run. And then ninth period, well there is too much physics in a physics class to list. Tons of gravity throughout the day and tons of newtons laws. Crazy..
  4. 2 points
    So if you haven't heard, a rocket that was supposed to bring supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) exploded on October 28. Here's a short article and video talking about it: http://www.wired.com/2014/10/antares-rocket-explosion/. Obviously, this kind of sucks. The rocket cost about $200 million and now most of the supplies won't make it to the ISS. However, explosions are still really fun to watch, especially one that big and I don't feel bad saying that since the rocket was unmanned. Also interesting is that the rocket was made by Orbital Science, under contract of NASA. This shows that the space industry is slowly because more of a private industry with Orbital Science and SpaceX leading the way at the moment. They aren't sure exactly what caused the rocket to fail, but the actual explosion was caused by the self-destruct being purposefully activated. The real problem was right when it fired its first stage - you can kind of see this in the video. As soon as this problem was noticed, it was decided to destroy the rocket before it reached a populated area and could potentially cause damage. Any number of factors can mess up a rocket launch; there are a lot of variables. Wind speed and direction, an area clear of people, weather, calculations, etc. I think the biggest things I learned from this are that those errors we usually don't account for in our physics labs (FRICTION!!) matter a lot in the real world, and that we still have not perfected going to space. I'm excited for space tourism anyway.
  5. 2 points
    Soooo, because this is my last blog post for this year ( ), I thought it would be fitting to do a course reflection on the AP-C physics class this year. I thought I'd do it in a "bests-vs-worsts" top 5 format, kind of like you could find on collegeprowler.com when viewing different schools. Top 5 Bests: 5.) Blog Posting [i thought this was really fun! I've never done anything like this before for a class. It brought up interesting physics applications and I thought it was fun to converse with classmates on the site ] 4.) Independent Units [As uncomfortable as I was at first, independent units forced me to manage my time, work harder than usual to learn the topic, and was great preparation for college. I feel like everyone sould experience this kind of a unit before graduating] 3.) Assigned practice problems from the readings [Assigned problems were REALLY helpful. I would've struggled a lot more than I did had I skipped doing the sample problems] 2.) Units with Lecture & book follow-up [This is my favorite way to learn things! The read-then-lecture method] 1.) VIDEOS <3 [Hands down the most helpful resource in Physics] Top 5 Worsts: ...I think this is my biggest beef. I really don't have 5 things to complain about. 1.) Readings weren't assigned [When life gets busy in the middle of the year, especially with a number of APs, sports, etc., readings are the first thing to get cut out for me if they're not assigned. Confession: when the going got tough, I would often skim or not read. I reccomend assigning readings in the future. Kids will complain, but they'll thank you when they see better grades and their AP score.] Overall, this was a successful year. A note to future students: This is by far the hardest AP course I've taken throughout high school. If you want to succeed, you must: A.) Read the textbook and do some practice problems B.) WATCH THE VIDEOS. Whether you're confused or simply want review, these are soooo outrageously helpful. It's like being in class a second time, except in 15 minutes or less instead of 42. Plus, you can skip over any sections that you feel you know solid. C.) REVIEW THE EQUATIONS AND FREE RESPONSE BEFORE THE AP. I went through most of the E&M free response questions as well as both E&M and mechanics equations before the exam. KNOW THE EQUATIONS! I swear equations and key concepts are the majority of the test when it comes to the multiple choice Qs. Any favorite parts of the year? Things you wanted to change? Post below with your opinion! ...I can't believe we only have 1 more day of physics
  6. 2 points
    PCX is a workout area that I participate at weekly with my volleyball team. We go on tuesday nights to exercise as a team. I realized while watching videos that i recorded of the exercise's how much physics was applied into each activity. The vertamax that we use for jump training is full of physics. When you use the vertamax you put on a belt with two clips on either side of your hips. You then stand ontop of the vertamax (a square flat surface) and then attach the clips to different color resistance bands. With the vertamax at PCX you can either choose to use it for jump training or leg strength by making the bands go parallel to the floor instead of perpendicular. Once cliped into the machine we are told to jump and go for maximun height. The force of the resistance bands pulls us toward the ground and makes us work harder to get higher into the air. Once we are done useing the clips we unclip the bands and then jump without resistance and analyze the height difference. The jacobs ladder is another machine that we utalize on a weekly basis. Similar to the vertamax you belt yourself into this machine and then "climb the ladder." You can control the speed of the machine with how much force you put into it. If you are working hard and pushing yourself and the machine then the output on the machine will mirror your work and move faster to challenge you. The machine is inclined at a angle so as to simulate climbing up a ladder type object The angle that it is inclined to makes it more difficult to climb. The Pull up bar is also full of physics. With three reps of eight pull ups my team is challenged to bring their entire bodies up into the air transitioning from potential energy into kinetic. We are given band to put our feet into for extra support. The rubberband like bands expand and retract to help differ our weight. The sled is yet another item that we use to work out. Notice this is not your typical snow sled. This sled is a black device that you put weights on inorder to work your legs and arms. Having the sled on the turf surface creates more surface tention and therefore more work to be done by my teamates. There are two different holds that we can choose from when using the sled. The two different holds are all about angles. The higher of the two is easier because you are able to use the machine against itself to push it across the turf. The lower of the holds means that the players body is parallel to the ground and very close to it. The force that it takes to push your legs and arms together to get the seld across the turf is increased from the higher angle hold. Basically every tuesday i have extra amounts of physics added to my day!
  7. 2 points
    My childhood, like many others, was spent watching many Disney Movies. One of my all time favorites was the Lion King- I never grew tired of it. One scene that always sticks in my mind is that once music number of young Simba and Nala and, of course, the scene of Mufasa's Death. (0:49-1:20) It can usually bring tears to even the toughest of teens, yes? As a child, this scene really never bothered me and, now, this sad scene seems to bother me so much more. Mufasa died a heroic, and untimedly, death by saving his only son. However, we should move onto the Physics now. How accurate is Mufasa's death, exactly? Could a fall from that height really kill an adult male lion? How far did he fall, anyway? It's very hard to tell but, after reviewing this scene many times I feel I can give a good shot at answering these questions. From what I can tell, Mufasa's fall lasted roughly 5 seconds (1:07-1:12ish), and started from rest before... Scar decided to be a jerk and condemn Mufasa to death. So, using the equation d=vit+(1/2)at2, knowing his falling time was 5 seconds, he started from rest, and acceleration due to gravity is 9.81m/s2; It can be estimated that Simba's father fell about 123 meters. While he seemes to be fairly high before he fell, I highly doubt that the the distance (vaguely seen at 0:50) was taller than the Statue of Liberty. Obviously, it makes sense why a Disney movie would over exaggerate the death of a character, and not care about making the Physics of a children's movie accurate. While real Lions are tough and resiliant, a fall like Mufasa's (even if less than 123meters) would still kill or severely injure an adult lion- not taking into account the stampeeding wildebeasts trampling. So, as expected, Disney's The Lion King takes little care in being realistic... It was still interesting to think about, however! And imagine how cool (at least, I think so) it would be if a childhood classic was actually completely accurate- in a physics sense (because animal's can't talk).
  8. 2 points
    I have a very large interest in bees, so for my first blog post I've decided to research how bees see colors differently compared to humans. Through my research I have discovered that the color spectrum of bees is shifted when compared to the color spectrum of humans. Visible light is part of a larger spectrum of energy. Bees can see ultraviolet – a color humans can only imagine – at the short-wavelength end of the spectrum. So it’s true that bees can see ‘colors’ we can’t. Many flowers have ultraviolet patterns on their petals, so bees can see these patterns. They use them as visual guides – like a map painted on the flower – directing them to the flower’s store of nectar. Some flowers that appear non-descript to us have strong ultraviolet patterns. Being a bee doesn’t necessarily mean you live in a more colorful world. Bees can’t see red – at the longer wavelength end of the spectrum – while humans can. To a bee, red looks black. Humans see light in wavelengths from approximately 390 to 750 nanometers (nm). These wavelengths represent the spectrum of colors we can see. Bees, see from approximately 300 to 650 nm. That means they can’t see the color red, but they can see in the ultraviolet spectrum (which humans cannot). Bees can also easily distinguish between dark and light – making them very good at seeing edges. This helps them identify different shapes, though they can have trouble distinguishing between similar shapes that have smooth lines – such as circles and ovals. Vision is important to bees, because they feed on nectar and pollen – and that means they have to find flowers. Bees can use odor cues to find a perfect flower, but that only works when they’re already pretty close. Vision is essential to help the bees find flowers at a distance. A bees Vision in responce to different colors: Red -> black Yellow -> yellow-green Orange -> yellow-green (darker) Green -> green Blue -> blue plus ultraviolet blue Violet -> blue plus ultra violet Purple -> blue White -> blue green Black -> black In conclusion, bees have a very unique color vision.
  9. 2 points
    As advised by Mr. Fullerton, I did the Coat-hanger bubbles experiment to further understand flux! Pre-experiment preparation: First, in my closet I found a nice metal coat-hanger suitable for the trial. After attempting to reshape the coat-hanger, I learned that my hangers are very strong, or that I lack strength; so, I went to my brother's toolbox and grabbed pliers to help bend the wire into a slinky-like shape. My coil ended up having four turns. I then ventured into my kitchen to fill the sink with soapy water. With the bubbly solution complete, I was ready to start the experiment. The experiment: I dipped my wire coil into the water, and slowly pulled it out. I found that the bubbles didn't form well to the structure. So, I compressed the coil by pushing the turns closer together. When I tried again with the compressed coil, the bubbles formed nicely between each turn and along the outside of the coil. The formation of the bubbles between each turn demonstrated how the number of turns matter when calculating flux. Therefore, the more turns, the greater the flux. Hence, the equation for magnetic flux is: N=number of turns A=area within one loop B=magnetic field =angle between magnetic field and positive normal direction Everyone should try this experiment before the test on Wednesday!
  10. 2 points
    While I was pouring ice cold lemonade for myself, I wondered-- "What would happen over time if I waited for a cup filled completely to the brim with ice to melt? Would the water spill over the cup as the ice melted? Or would the ice just melt leaving the cup still completely filled to the brim with no spills?" Huh. I had to test this out. I decided to use a cup filled with ice, and slowly poured water to the exact brim of the cup, and left a napkin under to see if the water would spill over after the ice melted. This was not enough for me. What if the cup were filled with ice and grape juice? Or ice cube grape juice filled with water? Or ginger ale? Or milk? I was curious. I tested these all out, only to find I was wrong in my original hypothesis. I was sure I'd come back to my kitchen a pooling mess of water, milk, grape juice, and ginger ale, but I was very wrong. I had three cups of perfectly filled glasses completely filled to the very very tippy top, like no other cup has even been. It was amazing. I realized something was up with water. These things called hydrogen bonds really mess with us chemist and physicists. Why? Because they can. In liquids, molecules slip, side, bond, break and reform. However when the water turns to ice, the molecules are rigidly bonded. This creates more empty space between the molecules when the hydrogen atoms bond together so rigidly and thus frozen water occupies more room. It is also less dense than liquid H2O because of this space. This is why ice floats in your Sodas. Or why in the winter-- better known as the constant weather in Rochester-- lakes and ponds freeze at the top and not on the bottom. Because ice is less dense due to H2O's molecular structure of Hydrogen bonding (positive to negative --oppositely charged ends of the water molecules-- creating space). Solid ice takes up more space than the liquid state of H2O. You would think that water would behave like every other substance from liquid to solid-- that the molecules would become denser and more compacted-- but no, it does the exact opposite. Because water is tricky, and that's why we drink it. You may be wondering why the milk and grape juice? Those are mostly water based as well, that is why. Due to the change in thermal energy, we all know that the water transferred energy from the high temperature (water) to the low temperature (ice). This is the second law of thermodynamics. It is also considered an energy heat flow. As we know, this happens so that this water glass can reach a happily balanced equilibrium. This is why ice melts. Even milk ice. The energy in the glass is never destroyed; the first law of thermodynamics tells us energy is conserved. Here are some cool links (pun intended) on ice and why it is less dense than its liquid state of H2O. (Also why it would not spill over a glass even when filled to the brim and left alone for an hour or so.) Not all science experiments have to be messy. http://www.word-detective.com/howcome/waterexpand.html
  11. 1 point
    The Space Race between both the USSR and the United States is by far one of my favorite eras of history to study. They say competition is the perfect motivation, and I truly believe, from a technological standpoint, this is era is a prime example of that motto in its purest form. Some of the biggest strides in human history were made in a time where computers were still the size of rooms all due to fear, curiosity, and drive. Public Service Broadcasting’s album, “The Race For Space”, tries to capture all of these emotions, during a handful of critical points, along this journey in order to show how important this period was for Humanity as a whole. (I will cover the tracks in event order not track order) Track 2: Sputnik The year is 1957, and, as tensions of the Cold War are ever increasing with no end in sight, humanity has its eyes on the one place neither power has even traveled: space. The Soviets, ever fearful of the United States launching into orbit, rushed through their plans to launch a 3,000 pound satellite equipped with various scientific instruments. They ended up downsizing dramatically to a 184 pound payload with a 58 centimeter diameter without any instruments. On October 4th of that year it was launched on a R-7 rocket with four stages. It nearly suffered a catastrophic launch failure, but the a combination of engine thrust and wing movement saved it last second. Well what did it do? It beeped. And that beep was the beep heard all around the world. Well at least for 22 days… its batteries actually exceeded the expectation of 14 days. For the first time in all of human history something was able to orbit the earth. It wasn’t the first man-made object in space, but it was the first which was in continual free fall around the earth. So, yes, the Soviets to prove themselves put a beeping piece of metal into orbit because that is all they needed to do to stir so much amazement and fear. The device whose name directly translates to “travelling companion”, would be the spark which set the both countries ablaze and straight into the most heated technological race in all of human history. Track 3: Gagarin It is now April 12th, 1961. Multiple years have passed since Sputnik, but no shortage of tests and animals had been launched into space, including the famous cosmonaut dog Laika on Sputnik 2. Now it was time to push the barrier forward onto man's reach into space. Enter Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin. A 27 year old Senior Lieutenant Gagarin was chosen out of over 200 Russian Air Force fighter pilots by peers and project heads due to his exceptionally quick thinking and attention to detail. At 9:07 A.M. Vostok 1 took off carrying Gagarin on board. Due to the feared consequences of free fall, the Russian mission control was totally in control of the craft the entire time. Yuri was the first human ever in space, a true high water mark achieved by humanity. His trip lasted one obit, a total of 108 minutes. While the United States press showed fear of losing the space race, he was seen in many places as a hero for humanity, going on a global world tour to be paraded around countries including England, Canada, and, of course, across the USSR. This stance of him being a pioneer, regardless of national affiliation, is what PBSB was aiming for in their upbeat track. Looking back now it is easy to say he was a true pioneer for all of humanity and his efforts will forever go down in history as that of a hero. Track 1: “The Race for Space” The date is now September 12th 1962. President Kennedy is making a speech to 40,000 people in Rice Stadium. At this point, the United States is far behind in the space race launching the first American, John Glenn, nearly a year after Gagarin. Kennedy knew he needed to rouse the American spirit, and, in effect, his speech became a defining speech in American history. A link to the full speech can be found here: https://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/ricetalk.html. Perhaps one of the most ambitious technological proposals made by a president, Kennedy promised that by the end of the decade America would put a man on the moon. Keep in mind no spacewalks had been taken, lunar modules had been made, no docking sequences had even been practiced, and here was the nation’s leader saying we could make it in 8 years or less. The National Defense Education Act had been passed due to Sputnik and had been in effect since October 4th 1957. Now its efforts of acting as a booster for the mathematics and science related fields was beginning to see results. Young engineers and scientists began coming out of Universities in order to rapidly increase the nation’s technological investments to bound ahead. This key moment not only left the nation space crazed, but made getting to space a budgeted objective at the front of the nation's interest. This vow and critical commitment is what would pave the way for the American Space program to come, as now Americans all over had their eyes on the skies. Track 7: “Valentina” Fast forward to June 16th, 1963, Vostok 6 is launched. It is the last in the man orbital missions launched by the USSR starting with Gagarin. Well what made this so different? This time the passenger was Valentina Tereshkova. Yes, the first woman in space. Her mission lasted 3 days and she kept two way radio communications with Voltok 5 which was orbiting with her. In this time she made 48 orbits, which was quite a large feat at the time. Her personal background was that of an avid skydiver and textile factory worker making her the first civilian in space as well. The space suit she wore was the MK-2 which was very similar to the MK-1 that Gagarin wore. These suits were only meant to be pressurized in an emergency, such as if the cabin was punctured. It would take a better space suit in order to do an EVA which is the coming up milestone. Up until this point, humans have remained within their pressurized cabin in order to take a safe trip, but now we move onward and upward by finally getting out of the restrictive hull. Track 5: “E.V.A” On the 18th of March 1965, the Voskhod 2 mission was launched. Two cosmonauts were abroad: Pavel I. Belyayev and Alexey A. Leonov. Belyayev was the primary pilot while Leonov was the secondary, but he had a far more important mission. He was to perform the first E.V.A trialing the first space suit with a life support system in the backpack. The flight lasted 26 hours and made 16 orbits. During this time the first spacewalk lasted approximately 20 minutes with Leonov claiming the experience gave him a sense of complete euphoria and tension at the same time. The mission, being reported as a major success, acted as a dramatic blow to the United States government. At the same time, many catastrophic failures occurred while in space, but were never reported on the ground. A few moments after Leonov stepped out of the shuttle he realized his suit had inflated to the point he could not get back in. He needed to decompress, and as he let out oxygen he began feeling the initial symptoms of decompression sickness. He began pulling rapidly on the cord thrusting himself in with a moment to spare, but at his current temp he was at risk of heat stroke. His perspiration blocked his view so he had to maneuver around the airlock blind. He eventually did it and made it back in to the safety of the shuttle. This was only the start of the problems though. Due to this maneuver the oxygen content of the shuttle soared, meaning any single spark would have it blow up as quick as a flash. They managed to lower the oxygen concentration back to a safe levels. The ultimate test occured when they had to manually re-enter the atmosphere due to engine problems. They were exposed to high G forces along with high temperatures only to land off course in Siberia. They were eventually recovered and hailed as heroes. This was yet another large step to making it to the moon with the United States still lagging behind. And they were soon to have one of their largest hardships to date. Track 4: “Fire in the Cockpit” On the 27th of January 1967, an event which would live in national infamy occurred. The Apollo 1 space crew, comprised of Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee, all entered their command module to undergo a simulation for their up and coming launch. The first problem arose when Grissom complained of a “sour smell” in the spacesuit loop, but decided to continue the test. This was followed by high oxygen flows triggering on and off the alarm. This wasn't resolved as the communications were experiencing problems resulting in the line being only between pilot Grissom and mission control. At 6:31, oxygen levels quickly rose as Chaffee casually says he smells fire, but within two seconds, White proclaims, “Fire in the cockpit.” Escape procedure was supposed to take ninety seconds, but ultimately that time frame was too long. In the highly oxygenated environment, the fire spread too quickly, followed by the command module rupturing forcing black smoke across the landing pad. An eventual investigation found that the fire was started by a faulty bundle of wires located behind their heads. It took firemen three minutes to quell the fire and to open the doors, but it was too late all three perished. It was a day of national remembrance and an overall low in the American Space program up until that point. Their sacrifices were distinguished with the highest regard as the nation mourned and tremendous loss. Track 8: “Go!” Apollo 11 is by far the most known aspect of the space race. It is the moment where scholars say the United States sealed their place as the winners of the space race. It inspired kids for years to come to become astronauts. The Apollo 11 mission’s ultimate goal was to land the first man on the moon fulfilling Kennedy's earlier promise and legacy. Apollo 11 launched on July 16th, 1969 with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin. It took 75 hours to reach lunar orbit. This is where the focus of the song is. It includes a systems check as the lander makes it's landing maneuver and lands on the surface. The utter tension at mission control was palpable. This was the most critical part of the mission, and when they landed, from the utter joy heard over the radio, the public knew they had finally done it. Tee descent began at 102:33 with the ultimate touchdown resulting at 102:45. After a period of set up and a postponed rest period, Armstrong made his exit onto the surface at 109:24:19 to utter those famous words. Aldrin soon followed behind with the whole thing being broadcasted to the American Public. This moment, the moment where America gathered around their television screens to watch them be the farthest away from anyone else that any human has ever been, was the height of the space race. They made their return launch starting at 124:22 and plunged back into the Pacific Ocean on July 24th. These pioneers set the standard of human exploration in the space age and acted as role models for new explorers for years to come. Track 9: “Tomorrow” The last track of the album is of course the most inspirational. It focuses around Apollo 17, which was the last manned mission to the moon. it was launched on December 7th, 1972 with crew members Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Harrison Schmitt. It's main objectives were to put a Rover on the moon, conduct testing, and take samples such as moon rocks and photographs. In total over 16 hours of EVA were conducted, 30.5 kilometers we're traversed by the rover, and 243 pounds of samples were collected. The mission was a success but extremely bitter sweet being the last mission in the Apollo chapter. It ultimately completed the era of the Space Race. It has much more sentimental value in this aspect, as the track takes the time to reflect on the previous decade and a half of progress and how far the human race has come. Ultimately the space race was a period of history where nations gathered behind the scientific progress they conducted. Yes, there was always the fear of mutual destruction, but the sense of shared awe at what humanity achieved far overshadows that factor when looking back at history. There are not many periods of history where technology progressed at such breakneck speeds, and may not be for a long time. There is plenty more to read about the period, and I encourage you to do so if this interested you at all. As always it had been a pleasure! This is ThePeculiarParticle, signing out. Informal Bibliography Esa. “The Flight of Vostok 1.” European Space Agency, European Space Agency, www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/ESA_history/50_years_of_humans_in_space/The_flight_of_Vostok_1. “The First Spacewalk.” BBC, BBC, 2014, www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/2014/newsspec_9035/index.html. Larimer, Sarah. “'We Have a Fire in the Cockpit!' The Apollo 1 Disaster 50 Years Later.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 26 Jan. 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/01/26/50-years-ago-three-astronauts-died-in-the-apollo-1-fire/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.7d4feb08cec3. “NASA.” NASA, NASA, www.nasa.gov/. “National Air and Space Museum.” The Wright Brothers | The Wright Company, airandspace.si.edu/. RFE/RL. “Kennedy's Famous 'Moon' Speech Still Stirs.” RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, 13 Sept. 2012, www.rferl.org/a/kennedy-moon-speech-rice-university-50th-anniversary/24706222.html. “Space.com.” Space.com, Space.com, www.space.com/. “Sputnik Spurs Passage of the National Defense Education Act.” U.S. Senate: Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, 9 Mar. 2018, www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Sputnik_Spurs_Passage_of_National_Defense_Education_Act.htm. (Disclaimer the websites were used many times for different articles)
  12. 1 point
    At the end of last quarter, I wrote a blog post about how I needed to change a few things because of the disaster that had come about in all my classes but especially physics. I feel that over the course of the past 10 weeks, I have changed the way that I learn and study. I find that I am more focused to get things done and understand them in a timely manner. I use all of the time given to me efficiently as well. Before this quarter, I found myself wasting class time and not doing the work that I needed to do in order to understand the content. Now that the learning is almost done for most classes and we move into the studying for exams during the last quarter, I need to remember the success that I have had during this quarter and continue it on. I know I can do it. We are now in the final stretch of high school and I am ready for it all. Until next time, RK
  13. 1 point
    Last weekend at an honors interview at Roberts, I got to take a look in some of their physics labs. they had some fun things set up for us to check out. One thing was in a section called "physics and music". Sounds perfect for me, right? They had a bunch of wine glasses filled with different amounts of water. When you dipped your finger in some water and rubbed it around the edge of the glass, a specific note could be heard. However, if your finger isn't wet, it doesn't work. Why? Turns out, it is because there is too much friction between the finger and the glass when the finger is dry. When the finger is wet, there is minimal friction, which allows the glass to vibrate, which produces the note. The amount of water in the glass determines how high or low pitched the note is. If you try this experiment, try placing a ping pong ball in the glass. The ping pong ball will make the vibrations visible because it will move on top of the water as the glass vibrates.
  14. 1 point
    The first point of sectional finals, we have serve. Ace. A couple more aces and a big serving run and we are now up 18-3. We end up winning the first set 25-6. 25-6. 25-6, in sectional finals, against Pittsford Sutherland. It is clear now who has the momentum moving forward. The momentum from the first set carried us in the next two sets and we end up winning the match and sectional finals. In a sport, when a team has the "momentum" in the game, it means that they are the ones on the move and will be hard to slow down and stop. In physics, momentum is the product of mass and velocity, and the equation is p=mv. Therefore, as mass or velocity increases, so does momentum. Momentum is also a vector quantity, so it has a direction to go along with the magnitude. A change in momentum is the impulse which uses the equation J=Ft. It would take a large amount of force in a large time to create a big impulse or change in momentum. Last night, Sutherland started to create an impulse in the second and third set, but it wasn't enough to sway the momentum in their direction. Here's a video of the final point of the match last night!
  15. 1 point
    The clean and jerk is an Olympic weight lifting movement where the lifter pulls the the bar from the ground, catches it in a squat, stands up from the squat and thrusts the bar over their head. The clean is performed by pulling on the bar off the ground with a high velocity, once the bar reaches about chest height, the lifter drops under neath the bar and catches it on his shoulder, and sits in a low squat position. The lifter then pushes up with a high velocity to stand back up, this is the clean. The jerk part of the movement is fairly simple. The lifter dips their hips down how ever far they desire, then they thrust the bar up with a high velocity, kick their legs out in a lunge position, catch and hold the bar at rest above their head.
  16. 1 point
    Some people might say that snow or rain or other forms of bad weather would be the easiest way to cause people to drive slower and safer, but in reality a police officer sitting on the side of the road is the easiest way to make everyone slow down. You will never see a more drastic change in people's driving behavior. A person could be going upwards of 80 mph but the second they realize their is a police officer, they immediately slow down usually to below the speed limit to guarantee they don't get pulled over for speeding. The radar guns police use, uses physics to help find out if the driver is going too fast. As the police officer aims the radar gun at cars passing by, the gun sends out radio waves toward the car. Then, the radio waves hit the car and bounce back toward the gun. The gun then measures the frequency of the returning waves, so the faster you are going toward the police radar gun, the higher frequency the waves will be. This concept uses a lot of physics including radio waves, frequency and also the Doppler effect. Since the car is moving toward the gun, the frequency of the returning radio waves will be much higher.
  17. 1 point
    Now that I've reached the last blog for this quarter, I thought I'd take it full circle back to music. Specifically the drum set. Drums are known for being loud and helping other members in a band keep the beat of a song. This is due to how they are built. Let's talk specifically about the bass drum. This is the largest drum, seen on the bottom of the drum kit and normally played with a foot pedal. The reason that it's the biggest drum is so that it can make those loud, deep sounds. The foot pedal strikes the skin of the drum, causing it to vibrate. This vibration sends the sound waves out through the drum, where they bounce around the inside of the drum. Having such a wide radius and depth, the drum allows the sound to reverberate within the drum before heading out to greet the audience's ears. This keeps it at a low frequency and allows the sound to build up and strengthen, becoming louder and reaching farther before dissipating.
  18. 1 point
    Like everyone else, this is my first blog post for Physics C. Outside of school, I really enjoy to golf, play CYO basketball, be around my friends or attend sporting events. I love to watch baseball and football, and that's how I spend all of my time that isn't taken up by calc, physics and econ. My biggest strength in school is that I generally understand things pretty quickly, but I could definitely benefit from an improved work ethic. In the future, I plan on attending college like most other kids in my position, but I really have no idea what I want to do once i get there. I am taking AP Physics C because, as I said, I really have no idea what I want to do in the future, so I figured the best way to set myself up for the future was to take the most challenging classes possible. What I do know about my future is that I want to be as successful as possible, and really intend on selecting a major that will best set me up for this. You're always told to major in something that you are passionate about, but I don't think many colleges offer a major in the arts of watching the New York Mets. Through this class, I hope to gain a better work ethic and improve on working in a setting like this where you have to learn a lot of things more independently. I also hope to understand Physics to a greater extent than I do now, because I feel like this topic could definitely be an important one for me going forward. The thing I am most excited for this year is the day I finish my final AP exam, because once that day comes I will have survived senior year. I am very anxious for the decisions I will have to make about my future over the course of this year, especially regarding college. Just saying the word college is enough to make me anxious. I am definitely excited to see what's in store for me in this course, and I look forward to writing many, many more blogs.
  19. 1 point
  20. 1 point
    Heh. It is really called the Drowsy Chaperone but you know. Details. It is often misread as this way plus words that don't actually exist tend to get people's attention more often, so yeah. Got your attention now. The Drowsy Chaperone is an awesome and hysterical musical within a comedy and in case you are out of the loop, it is the musical for IHS this year! (distance cheering: yayy!) COME SEE THE MUSICAL MARCH 26 AND 27 AND 28 AND 29. Okay anyway, without spoiling the show, there is one scene when all the lights in the protagonist's apartment go out, and he is left in darkness. The superintendent of his building shows up and tells him that they were resetting the breaker in the basement, and when it came back on, the lights tripped and the whole building went dark. So it happens. It's normal. The lights went out because the electrical circuit was opened, or broken. Because the loop was not closed, the current could not reach the lights, and the entire circuit was basically rendered useless.
  21. 1 point
    Over Thanksgiving break, I had the absolute pleasure of getting the opportunity to meet Brother Guy Consolmagno of the Vatican. Brother Guy is the curator of the Vatican's Metorite Collection...or in simpler terms: the pope's astronomer. Sophie DiCarlo, of Irondequoit High School, God bless her soul, knows Brother Guy as her cousin; and knowing how interested I am in astronomy was able to set me up with the chance to meet and talk with him about his job as well as attend a lecture he gave to the parents of her younger brother's Boy Scout troop at the United Church of Christ this evening. Wow. That was a mouth full. While in the probable, four total hours I have ever spent in his presence, I learned innumerable random things about fzx and astronomy from Brother Guy that I simply haven't the time to go over in it's entirety in one blog, so I'm going to focus on the most amazing thing he physically set before us at his lecture earlier today. It was a rock. Well, there were multiple rocks. Some of them were LITERALLY 4.566 billion years old and let me say they looked real great for their age. There were these tiny little pebbly ones in a glass tube that has been parts of asteroids and another two that were pieces of metorites; however, ONE was super dark, compact and solid, while the OTHER was light gray, powdery and airy...if you can use the word airy to describe a rock. He called them 'rare.' I was so surprised...a RARE rock? Are you kidding. Rocks are not rare, welcome to Earth. BUT THEY WERE RARE ROCKS and I think that's absolutely astonishing. We weren't even allowed to touch any of these rocks because they we so rare. He said they had been on display. These were MUSEUM QUALITY rocks. I was just enthralled that there IS an existing rock that legitimate people would be actually mad if I threw it into a lake. Honestly, all this hype about rocks sounds pretty lame, but I am actually very excited about it...these little baby rocks are the T. J. Eckleburg glasses of the universe! I can't believe I was so close to them. Currently my cellphone is farther away from me than those rocks were not an hour ago. And 4.566 billion years ago those rocks were lost in space farther than I could ever imagine. Finally, he came upon a black rock. It looked like something a thug would kick around at a dump. It was awesome. He started discussing elements and what rocks are made of, typically silicon and iron, basic chemistry. And then explained that while there aren't a lot of air elements found in rocks, oxygen was in ALL of these rocks. But the 16-17-18 ratios were different because these rocks were formed in different parts of the UNIVERSE! The chemistry of these rocks was literally tampered with by the solar system...YES --> okay so important thing number 2: this black, dumpster rock he was talking about had CARBON in it...and everyone was like WHAT! And he was like yeah! Carbon? That's different than all the others! This one was also only 0.9 billion years old. Which, I mean, is a good life. But not nearly as long as the pebbles have lived. Point C => He then told us that in the largest sample of this rock, there was a stream of GLASS hardened down the middle. That means, that the surface of this planet must've carried LAVA. And in the glass strip, were BUBBLES which means there is proof of at one point: WATER. Also...it's rusted... Someone from the back of the room goes, "IT'S FROM MARS! Is it from Mars?" Brother Guy laughs and goes, "I'll tell you exactly why this sample cannot possibly be from Mars. You see...when we examine the size of the craters on the moon, we can evaluate how far they can launch debris. We can do that with Mars. And the craters on Mars are not NEARLY large enough to launch this chunk of rock to us." I was very impressed. I was convinced! Then Brother Guy goes, "Alas, from the data we have collected, the elements present and the comparisons we have made, this rock must be from a planet with the same exact, IDENTICAL, atmosphere as Mars." Someone else, "So it's from somewhere even farther away that we don't know about?" Brother Guy responded, "The thing is. How likely is it that there is another planet with the EXACT same atmosphere as Mars, that we do not know about, that is still close enough to have gotten remains onto Earth's surface? What are the odds? No chance. If there's one thing that I've learned about fzx, it's that if it happened, it's possible." If it happened, it's possible. I love that. I love that so much, I will never get over the fact that he said that. I think that's so clever. And true! He continued for just a second more: "So yes, this is indeed a sample from the planet Mars." And I was 11cm. away from it.
  22. 1 point
    Friday, the day of Halloween I figured I would have a normal day. Have an easy day at school, then have Halloween fun after school. Well I found myself fighting a bear on Halloween instead. It was a tough fight but I managed to defeat the bear and skin it's bear fur and sell it for a profit. While carrying the bear hide I tripped and fell on a small rock and fractured my ankle. Just kidding, I didn't fracture my ankle after the fight, that was later. 3rd period, around 10 o'clock is when the action really happened. 3rd period is my gym period and I always go hard (Go hard or go home, right?). Well this time I wasn't too into the game and didn't go hard for the first time in a while. We were playing soccer and that involves a lot of forces and trajectory and what not. Unfortunately, one of the forces that class period was not applied only onto the ball. When a teammate passed me the ball I was casually standing there as another player ran up and pushed me, clearly I pushed him back though (normal forces and such). When I was pushed I tripped and fell and landed on my foot, sideways. Applying forces in all types of directions. I later went to Urgent Care and discovered that I had fractured my ankle and needed a split and crutches. I'm no longer allowed to apply forces to the ground (even though it returns the favor) because it will make my dusty ankle even worse.
  23. 1 point
    During my junior year of high school, my 5th year playing field hockey, i made several connections with field hockey and physics, whether i wanted to or not. As center mid for my team, i am involved in almost every play, so i see in every way, shape and form how physics dictates the way the game is played. In our sectional game i had a beautiful aerial that went over everyone and straight into the circle where a teammate was and the play lead to a beautiful goal, which helped us with the game! Later i then realized that the aerial that i played was a perfect example of a projectile. Since the ball was only being impacted on by gravity it made it the perfect real life application to physics. The ball when i lifted it flew in a path of a parabolic arc due to the fact that it was sent into the air at an angle. This also means that the ball had the same speed the minute it left my stick to the moment just before it hit the ground. The fact that the ball also became a projectile the minute it left my stick means that the horizontal components and the vertical components are different, and only the time is transferable between the two. For example the acceleration of the vertical component of the ball was 9.81 m/s^2 where as the acceleration for the horizontal component of the ball was 0. This is due to the fact that the ball had no force pulling it horizontally, which meant that the horizontal speed remained constant, however, there was a force acting on the ball vertically, gravity, this then pulled at the ball with an acceleration of 9.81 m/s^2 increasing the velocity of the ball as it fell. Field Hockey is truly filled with physics, and the projectiles are just one small component of the sport.
  24. 1 point
    Here we have a kid I like to call Junior Jokey(inside joke). In this video you can clearly see How Junior Jokey turns the corner and accelerates to top speed quickly in order to exploit the lack of defense. He shows his ability to utilize physics. As he states his run, you can clearly see his acceleration picking rapidly. This would show that on his velocity vs time graph it would be half of a parabola as his velocity increase goes up. Ten once Junior Jokey hits his top speed, his acceleration would be 0 and his velocity vs time graph would show a flat line. Junior Jokey is physics.
  25. 1 point
    In my soccer team's sectional game, there were many examples of Newton's 1st Law. For instance, when the ball was rolling towards me, I kicked the ball in the other direction which demonstrates Newton's 1st Law that an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by a net force. My foot acted as the net force as I stopped the ball from rolling towards me, and I kicked it in the other direction. Also, as I kick the soccer ball, my foot exerted a force on the ball, but the ball also exerted a force back on my foot. This demonstrates Newton's 3rd Law which says that all forces come in pairs and that each object exert a force on each other which is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Friction also plays a role when playing soccer as well. As the ball is kicked along the turf, the turf creates friction against the ball. Friction opposes motion for an object, being the ball, sliding across another surface, which would be the turf.
  26. 1 point
    No, not that 5th dimension. I'm actually here to talk about five-dimensional space, not soul music - but regardless, I hope this piques your interest. Last post, I researched the 4th dimension, and attempted to break it down in a concise, easy-to-understand, yet informative manner. This is pretty much impossible to do, especially throwing a new dimension into the mix; so again, you'll have to look for yourself to get a more comprehensive view. (Known as a 5-cube) Several branches of physics, namely particle and astrophysics, studies and debates whether or not the universe we inhabit is, in some way or another, five-dimensional. Essentially, the 5th dimension is a hypothetical dimension beyond the three spatial dimensions which we know, and the dimension of time brought to us by relativity. Several theories were developed around such a dimension; for example, shortly after the theory of relativity came into fruition, an extension of it emerged concerning the 5th dimension. It was developed over the course of two decades, and was known as the Kaluza-Klein theory. Initially, it unified gravitational forces with electromagnetic forces - then Oskar Klein came along to give this theory a quantum interpretation, stating that this dimension was "rolled up" and microscopic. This "microscopic" view actually corresponds with string theory, which relies on the existence on 11 dimensions. In this view, 7 out of the 11 dimensions would be rolled up and existent only at the subatomic level. Some speculations occur in this respect - one of these being that the graviton, a particle said to carry the force of gravity, may somehow permeate into the 5th dimension or higher. This would supposedly explain why gravitational forces are weaker than the other 3 fundamental forces - strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and electromagnetic. So how should we view this 5th dimension? A "holographic principle" was put forward by Dutch theoretical physicist Gerard 't Hooft, which states that a dimension can be viewed as curvature in a spacetime with one fewer dimension. For example, a hologram is a 3-D picture on a 2-D surface, giving it the visible curvature that we all notice. Likewise, the fourth dimension would be the curvature path of a test particle in three-dimensional space. 't Hooft also speculated the 5th dimension to be the spacetime fabric - that continuum which can be distorted by large masses/gravity. A hypersphere in five-dimensional space, the volume enclosed by the set of all points in 5-space equidistant from a central point, is given by the equation , where r is that distance from the center point. (I just added this for the people like me who want to see some tangible math to break up the crazy theoretical stuff.) That's about all I have, so remember to research further if you're interested - I can't do this stuff justice!
  27. 1 point
    My fellow AP-C students and I are working on the Work-Energy unit right now, and in the Webassign there are some questions involving the dot product of vectors. The maximum amount of elements these vectors have is 3, though: <x,y,z> or <i,j,k>. Well, this makes sense, since we live in a 3-dimensional world, of length, width, and depth. Or do we? Obviously, the concept of 3 dimensions has been around as long as mathematics (even in its most rudimentary of forms) has been around. It's obvious because it's what we see, and touch, and live. Trying to imagine a 4th dimension is like trying to imagine a color we've never seen before - it's impossible for our brains to comprehend. Mystics used to describe the 4th dimension as a sort of "spirit realm" - a place free of Earth's bounds and restrictions. With the advancement of science and mathematics, many began to view time as the 4th dimension. It makes some sense - just like we humans are constrained to length, width, and depth, we're constrained to constant increments of time (well, some believe it's not constant...but I'll get to that some other time). (May or may not be inspired by the theory of relativity) In the theory of relativity, Einstein describes time as a fourth dimension. Space being inseparable from time, spacetime became known as its own continuum, but time is mathematically treated differently from the other spatial dimensions. After all, we can move in all directions 3-dimensionally, but only forward in time. For now. However, some more modern scientists such as H. S. M. Coxeter state that using time as a 4th dimension is a cop-out. (Paraphrasing) In this regard, there is a spatial/Euclidean description of the fourth dimension: the vector <x,y,z,w>. Try to imagine this: you know that x, y, and z are all perpendicular to each other. Well, w, the fourth dimension, is perpendicular to all of these. It's pretty much impossible to comprehend, since we live in a 3-D world, but its properties can be inferred. Using dimensional analogies, we can see how 3 dimensions relates to 2, or 2 to 1, and infer how 4 would relate to 3. This can be used for even more dimensions - string theory, for example, relies on the existence of 10. There are mathematical limitations to these inferences. Here's one example: Circumference of a circle = 2Ï€r Surface area of a sphere = 4Ï€r^2 So what's the surface volume of a hypersphere, a fourth dimensional figure? Using dimensional analogies, we might be tempted to say 8Ï€r^3, assuming it's multiplied by 2r each time. However, the real answer is apparently 2Ï€^2*r^3. Don't ask me why, I didn't derive the equation. I can't do this subject justice in a concise blog post, or probably with any. It's incredibly complicated and I don't wish to oversimplify - so research further if you're interested!
  28. 1 point
    First of all I have to say that I'm surprised that nobody here has blogged about this yet. But in case you haven't heard yet, March 17th was a big day for science, and physics in particular. Researchers from Harvard University and the Smithsonian released evidence of distortion in the cosmic background radiation (shown to the right) caused by gravitational waves from when the universe went through inflation after the big bang. The idea is that in the 1x10-35th of a second after the big bang the universe expanded very rapidly at a speed much larger than the speed of light (and yes, that is possible since its the universe itself was moving). So what exactly does this mean? First of all, it is direct evidence that the big bang happened. There still may be a little uncertainty but the team that found this distortion has been looking at it for three years ruling out every other possibility so chances are it's exactly what they say it is. It also may have profound effects on our understanding of physics. Gravity waves were the last untested part of Einstein's theory of general relativity and with this evidence its now a complete theory. There is also a chance that it may lead to a unified theory of modern physics. As of now general relativity (the physics of very large things) and quantum mechanics (physics of very small things) don't work together but this discovery could help bridge the gap between the two. Also, most of the current theories of inflation include the existence of multiple universes and this evidence narrows down the theories a lot to the ones that include a multi-verse. The possibilities with this are endless because there is a chance that other universes will have laws of physics different than our own, which would be crazy but awesome to study. Scientific breakthroughs of this magnitude don't happen often but when they do they usually lead to a vastly improved understanding of the mechanisms of the universe.
  29. 1 point
    For the most part, humans have good sight. A lot of time and effort during our modern era is put into making TV and computer screens at a higher and higher resolution in order to make things look as "real" as possible - that is, to make the pixels onscreen indistinguishable from what we would normally see. But how good are our eyes really? Lets find out. Before all of this, I'll direct you to a nice, short, but informative link (https://xkcd.com/1080/), courtesy of xkcd. A good representation of how we see, it outlines the many different parts of vision very nicely. Focusing primarily, however, on the "resolution" of our field of vision, that is, how many "pixels" we can see, we can see it varies. Right in the center few degrees, in the foveal region, we can see stuff quite clearly, which makes sense, because we're looking at it. However, the blurred characteristic of the surrounding areas isn't just because we aren't focused on it, but because there simply isn't as much data provided there - much less, in fact. While our center of vision is comparable to a high-res camera, the surrounding areas are much worse quality, with the entire area outside of the center ~10 degrees containing a fraction of the data that the center area does. Our brain just fills in the gaps. So while at times our vision is quite good, other parts could use some work. And even with the high detail of our foveal region, you still might not need that new HDTV. Based on how far away you're sitting, it might not even be noticeable, so don't waste your money.
  30. 1 point
    Physics is simple once you get the hang of it! At first the concepts are confusing, but practice makes perfect and it becomes much easier. By the time the test rolls around it's much easier. When I look back on my tests I wonder why I ever had trouble with the chapters. I am so glad I can say this now!
  31. 1 point
    During my first week of physics class i felt completely lost! I wanted to understand physics so badly! I love math; so I was confused as to why I was not understanding physics. We were learning kinematics and I had no idea what was happening. What's velocity? What's acceleration? These were some of the questions I was asking myself. After much practice I finally got the hang of it! Looking back at kinematics it seems so easy! Hopefully with some of the harder material I will feel the same way! One of my favorite experiments we did in class was watching what happens with an electroscope. An electroscope is a model that demonstrates the movement of electric charge. Check out the video I posted below to learn all about an electroscope!
  32. 1 point
    What is Pavel time? Pavel time is the time right before a deadline when actual work gets done. How does this relate to physics? It relates specifically to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. Part of the theory of relativity states that measurements of various quantities are relative to the velocities of observers. In particular, space and time can dilate. So, in real life, as an object approaches the speed of light, it gets squished and time slows down for the object. How does this relate to Pavel time? In my theory of relativity, as more work gets done more quickly, time slows down and allows me to finish whatever assignment I have before the deadline.
  33. 1 point
    The average AP Physics student enjoys the course until one thing hits....electrostatics. It is doable, but it is much different from the usual "block slides down the incline" norm. What makes it so weird, intangible, and seemingly impossible when one moves on to magnetism, electromagnetic induction, and other hellishly sounding topics? My understanding is simply that you can do the following: -Touch an object -Throw, drop, kick, or destroy an object -Feel gravity and gravitational fields But you CAN'T do these things: -Feel an electric field (unless you have the right supplies) -Touch point charges, electrons (don't get too technical here), protons and a "coulomb". -Throw, drop, kick, or destroy electricity. We understand gravity simply because we're feeling it right now. Electric fields are ALSO bombarding you at the moment, but you don't feel them consciously. The lack of visualization readily available to the everyday E&M contributes to the hatred of the topic. Rightly so, E&M. Go shock someone else.
  34. 1 point
    Yesterday I climbed Giant Mountain, one of the 46 Adirondack High Peaks. With a summit elevation of 4,627 feet (1,410 m) Giant is the 12th tallest of the high peaks and with an elevation change of 3000 ft in 3 miles it's also on of the steepest. The journey began at the car near the trail head where I was deciding on footwear. The 2 options were hiking boots (0.92 kg a pair) of Nike frees (.42 kg a pair). The boots would be heavier and require more work to ascend the mountain, but would provide better traction and keep my feet dry. The frees would require less energy but likely slip on everything, provide less support and get my feet drenched within minutes. I chose the boots, so how much more work did I do climbing the mountain? The ideal approach to figuring this out would be to multiply the number of steps that I took while ascending and descending the mountain by the average distance that I lifted my feet with each step; and then multiply that by the force I exerted against the weight of my boots/shoes (work=force*displacement). However I didn't count my steps because counting for 5 hours would have driven me insane and the vertical distance that I lifted my feet varried widely on the diffenrt sorts of terain I encountered. So I'll just use the vertical displacement up the mountain as my displacement. The difference im energy expendature can be found by multiplying the difference in weight of the shoes by the displacement up the mountain. Difference in weight=(.92kg-.42kg)(9.8m/s2)=4.9N Vertical displacement=(3000ft)(1mi/5280ft)(1609m/mi)=914m work=force*displacement Difference in work=(4.9N)(914m)=4497.6J So by choosing the boots I expended about an extra 4500 Joules (about 1070 calories) of energy (but I estimate that in reality It was probably closer to double that). However as we climbed further the trail became covered in snow and ice, making it incredibly wet and slippery, so without the boots I likely would have fallen off the the mountain and gotten frostbite on my feet. In the end think 4500J is a fair tradeoff for not dying.
  35. 1 point
    "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music." —Betrand Russell Physics is, in essence, applied mathematics. It's how math applies to life, and the results thereof. And math is... beauty? That's not how one would usually think. However, there is a certain beauty to math and how everything resolves itself when it is applied. The way tree growth and snowflakes resemble fractals, light waves follow the simplicity of a sine curve, a top wobbles back and forth, light bends around a magnifying glass - heck, we learned some of these last year in physics B. But while analyzing the theory behind it, how many of us stepped back to think of the beauty? However I explain it, watching it makes it better.
  36. 1 point
    All a cross history the assassin brotherhood have hunted the twisted templar order through many forms of assassinations. They rely on their acceleration and distance in order to proform a quick assassinations. One of their techniques is an air assassination which is made through their initial velocity and time in seconds to assassinate a templar. they leap of high places with a prabola shaped air assassinations. One of their most deadly tools of assassinations is the rope dart which uses force to pull a guard from rest and into the ground within seconds. these small tachtics have made the Asssassin's creed the most feared brotherhood in all of gaming history.
  37. 1 point
    Recently for Physics, we were assigned to create a catapult, which we then launched in class on Friday. This was a crazy experience to undergo! My partner and I had to create several Vi, Vf, d, a, t tables to figure out which catapult design would launch the softball producing the possible maximum distance. Unfortunetly, our plan didn't work out the best and the softball only went a distance of one meter, but that isn't the point. We figured out that if we were to launch the softball at an angle of 45 degrees, we should be able to get the maximum distance feesable from our catapult. To make sure that this theory is infact accurate, we tested out different angles in our equations like 40 and 50 degrees just to be sure that our calculations were true. The project, I felt, was very informative and taught me a lot. Not just with working with the equations but also working with tools to create a successful object using what we have learned in class!
  38. 1 point
    It was hot. REAL HOT. I just had gym and I realized I had fysics next period...all the way on the third floor. Dun Dun Duuuuuuuuuuun. I knew by the time I got up there I would be dying of exhaustion and be sweating profusely. Its not looking good on this horrendousjourney. As I began to climb,as I expected, I started to sweat more and more. I wondered what terrible thing would cause this to happen to me and then I realized it was all fysics fault. I wanted to figure out how much extra work I am doing by going to third floor instead of the first, so I calculated the amount of work to clib the climb the stair. To determine this I assumed the stairs have a height of 7 inches. I also remembered my work equations from fysics B. W=∆Et to find ∆Et I must find my change in potential energy, with respect to the first floor. My change of energry from the first floor to the top would be a change in potential energy which is the equation ∆Et=mg∆h. Assuming each step is 7 inches and there was 42 steps the change in height is 294 inches. To convert this to meters I must use the conversion of 1 inch= 0.0245 meters. So (294)(.0245)=7.203 meters. I also have to do a conversion of my weight in pounds to mass in kg. The convertion for this is 1lb=.453592kg. (135)(.453592)=61.22142kg. I then use both of these conversions to plug into the equation ∆Et=mg∆h. ∆Et=(61.22142)(9.8)(7.203), ∆Et=432.15833Jules ∴ W=432.15833Jules. That's a lot of work before we do work!
  39. 1 point
    Hi there. I'm a new Physics AP-C student, and I would like to tell you a little bit about myself. I'm an avid programmer/science enthusiast, and am looking towards entering a scientific or science-related field. I (as one may assume) like science and math, and more leisurely things like playing video games or disc golfing. Things of the sort. The reason I'm taking Physics AP-C this year is because I'm interested in learning more about physics and I want to solve more challenging problems using my physics knowledge. I enjoy calculus and I think it will be cool to see some of the applications of what I learn. As a result, I hope to not only hone my calculus knowledge but get some useful information on specific areas of physics and, in general, how to approach difficult, complex problems in an effort to solve them. I always enjoyed electricity and magnetism, and I'm looking forward to that and hopefully being able to dream up some cool uses for my new knowledge. However, no matter what we learn, I think I'll be excited just to know it. So I'm hoping to have fun!
  40. 1 point
    After many, many long hours and tons of great feedback from physics teachers across the globe, I'm thrilled to announce the AP Physics 1 Essentials, a guidebook / review book for the upcoming AP Physics 1 course, is due for release in late August. I began work on this project in the summer of 2010 when conversations at the AP Annual Conference in Washington, D.C., led to a number of different teachers talking about the need for a detailed course breakdown to support the change, followed by discussion of what the true cost of the change would be in terms of instructor hours, curriculum rewrites, resource revisions, etc. It was obvious there was going to be a need for a guidebook for the course, and my goal was to provide a short "everything you need to know" book that was easy-to-read, fun, engaging, and inexpensive so that students could pick this up as a guidebook/review book without having to purchase entirely new textbooks to support the changing course. I quickly picked up a following of fans eager to see the project succeed and more than willing to contribute what they could, from early draft versions of the Division of Content plans (which only vaguely resemble the final curriculum guides), to proposed and/or recommended formula sheets, to technical reviews, editing, "wish lists," etc. I've been amazed at the positive response and helpfulness of so many, that has allowed this project to progress through multiple obstacles, from revised content and organizational issues through technical hurdles such as a corrupt book file caught nearly 80% into the rough draft. I guess this qualifies as checking the "nothing worthwhile is easy" box on the project. I'm grateful to my family for allowing me the many hours early in the morning, late in the evening, and during the summer to work on this effort. As I write this, for example, I'm on vacation with my family. It's almost 6 am, I'm watching the Allegheny River flow past, and just saw a bald eagle fly up the river, not 30 feet from where I sit typing. I also must thank the many physics instructors across the globe who have contributed in so many ways, from editing to hints to encouragement... but I need to say a special thank you to the APlusPhysics community. The website began as a tool to use in my own classroom, and quickly grew so popular that I felt compelled to continue to expand it at the request of its users. With more than 30,000 students using it EACH MONTH, I've been absolutely floored by the number of thank-you messages, letters of encouragement, and success stories contributed voluntarily by community members. You guys set me on this path, made the site and the books successful, and it's your encouragement and support that have kept me at this project through the wee hours of the night and long hours of frustration. Moving on to the final product… I'm proud to say the book is finished. Sure, it has a few more edits to make, a few more tweaks here and there, but everything is on track for a late August 2013 release. My long-term goal was to have the book released one year before teachers began teaching the revised AP course, and it appears we'll hit that deadline on the nose (with special thanks to the AP for delaying the change a year from the date I was originally told back in the summer of 2010). I'm hoping you find it valuable to your courses and studies. This book was written as the guidebook I would want my students to have for the course. Not a full standard physics textbook, because my students don't learn and fully read their physics textbook (except in snippets), but rather a book designed to be used as written, read AND understood, with tons of example problems and solutions. Thank you so much for your tremendous support. I hope you enjoy AP Physics 1 Essentials as much as I enjoyed the opportunity to work with you and so many other amazing people on this project. Make it a great day!
  41. 1 point
    When we think of Kelvin temperature, we think only in positives, since zero Kelvin is also absolute zero, the point at which a particle has absolutely no energy, and thus no movement or vibration. Scientists in Germany, however, managed to create the hottest temperatures ever recorded by creating a substance with a negative Kelvin temperature. How is this possible? Well, in order to understand this bizarre concept, we have to go back to our definition of temperature. In thermodynamics, we typically refer to temperature as the average temperature of the particles in a substance. However, because quantum physics deals with energies as the smallest of small scales, and because quantum physics is, from a mathematical perspective, about probabilities, it makes more sense to define temperature as the distribution of the energies of the particles in a substance. So, for example, a boiling pot of water would obviously have plenty of high energy particles buzzing around, but it would have a few low-energy particles too. We simply would pay them no mind because the average energy of the particles is consistent. To a quantum physicist, however, those few low-energy particles matter, because they form part of the energy distribution of the substance. By definition, when a substance has a positive Kelvin temperature, the particles start from a minimum temperature (absolute zero) and spread out toward higher energies. The German scientists, however, wanted to create a substance that started at a maximum temperature and spread toward lower energies. By definition, such a substance would have a negative temperature. Paradoxically, having a negative temperature makes the gas that the scientists created extremely hot. Since the particles start from a maximum temperature and spread to lower temperatures, and since energy flows from hot to cold, heat will always flow away from the negative temperature gas, making it the hottest thing we've ever observed. One of the other interesting properties of negative temperature gases is that they not only have the hottest temperatures, but negative pressures. Normally, a gas concealed in a container would spread out and apply pressure to all sides of the container. A negative temperature gas, on the other hand, causes the atoms in the container to cave inward, as if everything converges to a single point. Because dark matter is believed to have negative pressure as well, this characteristic of negative temperature gases leads scientists to think that studying them may reveal more to us about the elusive dark matter that is believed to account for a lot of "missing mass" in the universe. You can read more about the negative temperature gas and the study conducted by the German scientists here: http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/347370/description/Hottest_temperature_ever_measured_is_a_negative_one
  42. 1 point
    <p>Longboarding is a particular hobby where a bunch of different physics topics are covered by a simple act that doesnt take much energy by the rider, but can still experience great thrills and excitement. Different keytopics with in this activity include, motion and forces, friction and energy.<br /> Motion and forces are key components of longboarding. The forces in particular enable the motion to take place. The force of gravity acts on the longboard and its rider. The greater the hill (incline) the greater the angle off the horizon and this allows gravity to have more of an effect as it acelerates you down the hill and increase your velocity. Also if your mass is greater, then you contribut more wieght where the force of gravity will be able to act on more matter and allow you to possess a greater degree of motion.&nbsp;</p> <p>Friction is another key component in a couple aspects. First off, in order to stay more secure with the board, rubber shoes are ideal because they create the greatest combination for the force of friction with the grip tape on top of the board. This force of friction is what helps reduce your chances of falling off the board and getting seriously injured. Also the other component of friction is between the wheels which are composed of a hard plastic and the pavement where friction is at a minimum to allow one to go fast and smoothly.&nbsp;</p> <p>Also momentum is another topic to discuss. In this activity one can achieve a fast forward momentum due to the length of the incline and also the angle of elevation from the horizontal. If both are optimum, then 30 40 even sometimes 50 miles an hour at some extremes is a whole lot of speed, and falling would hurt alot. Which brings us to impulse, (change in speed) and this is what we care about most for safety aspects. If its a quick difference in speed, (quick impulse), like hitting a rock and haulting the board, then one cant handle and or absorb the shock in a controlled fashion resulting with some extra momentum not being transfered through the board to a stop but instead its converted to access speed and results in one flying forward onto the ground. So we want soft easy change in speed where we can slowly come to a stop so avoid cracks and or rocks in the road or else.&nbsp;</p> <p>Lastly energy and this has to do with potential and kinetic energy. Potential energy is before you star where if you go on top of a large hill, you have potential to go down on the longboard and when you go, the energy is in turn transfered into kinetic energy and this is your forward motion.&nbsp;</p> <p>All these components are what make up the physics facts of longboarding.&nbsp;</p>
  43. 1 point
    Last night I was at an awesome concert, but as I looked around, I realized how much physics can truly relate to everything going on around me. First of all, if you are at a concert, you expect to hear some music. That must mean that sound waves have to be traveling through the air for everyone to hear it. As I was sitting there enjoying the concert, I realized that the speed of sound in air at STP is 3.31x10^2 m/s! This made me extremely happy to have some background information on sound waves that most people don't have because they didn't take regents physics. I also knew that the closer I got to the stage, the higher the frequency and amplitude would be, and if I started heading towards the door, the amplitude and frequency would decrease, which illustrates the Doppler Effect. Also, there were some pretty awesome lights shining all over the stage and occasionally over the crowd. I was watching the colorful lights, when all of a sudden the electromagnetic spectrum came to mind. I thought about how out of the whole spectrum, there is only a small part that is made up of visible light. I also thought how all the colors can come together and if they are reflected, that creates white, and if they are absorbed, that creates black. I also realized how fast light must be traveling, at a speed of 3.00x10^8 m/s! This information gave the concert a whole new meaning. As I was looking around at the crowd, I noticed that a lot of people seemed to be crowd surfing, but many of them fell to the ground, which looked pretty painful. I then wondered what their final velocity would be when they hit the ground, so I decided to use one of my kinematics equations to figure it out. First of all, a person's initial velocity would be 0 m/s, because they are just lying on top of the crowd right before they fall. They would probably fall a distance of 2.5 meters, and their acceleration would be 9.81 m/s^2. I then could use the equation vf^2=vi^2+2ad, and once I plugged in all of my known values, I figured out that their final velocity would be about 7 m/s.
  44. 1 point
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a19fhhJcs1E Although a bit lengthly the significance of this video takes a tour of the life and death of starts and what they have to offer in the universe. Also, some facts about stars include that it is large celestial body composed of gravitationally contained hot gases emitting electromagnetic radiation, especially light, as a result of nuclear reactions inside the star. Stars are wondrous things that we know little about because of our limitations in technology. However, we learn more and more each day. they come in a variety of colors and sizes. Blue stars are hotter then white stars, white stars are hotter then yellow stars. Red stars are the coolest Ive always wondered what would happen if the sun completely blew up while humans are still alive to witness it
  45. 1 point
    Alpine skiing is one of my favorite things to do. And in thinking about the sport there is a lot of physics involved! Downhill skiing involves gravity and friction more than any other sport I can think of. The most important equipment to any ski racer is their skis, this involves an amazing amount of maintnance. Taking care of a good pair of race skis includes sharpening them after each use and waxing them as well. Waxing skis has a lot to do with the physics of the sport. What waxing does is it fills in all the little scratches and grooves worn into the skis which are unavoidable after use. Having these little grooves filled in provides the racer with the smoothest surface possible for the ski to travel over the snow, and the smoother the ski, the faster it will carry the skier. sharpening skis also has a lot to do with the physics of the sport. While waxing the skis is an effort to reduce friction, sharpening skis is an effort to induce more friction. around a turn the edge of the skis is responcible for holding the full force of a skier while at the most powerful part of the arc of the skiers path. Around any turn in a race coarse a skier can withstand up to 4G of force at high speed, and all that force is deflected straight to the edge of the skis which in turn must be able to grip the snow well enough to keep the shape of the arc turn while under force. this diagram shows the different forces applied to a ski racer going around a turn in a race coarse: An interesting experiment occurs during almost ever race ive ever been to. you can always tell who doesnt take care of their skis by how they preform on the icy coarses. someone who doesnt bother to sharpen their skis can end up sliding around the turns instead of being able to cut into the snow to bend the ski into a nice arc shaped turn. overall, the sport of alpine skiing involves an incredible amount of physics, I wonder what aspects of other sports involve a lot of physics?
  46. 1 point
    As a volleyball player and also a physics student, it’s only natural that I came about the question as to how physics is related to serving and hitting. I knew that in order to jump higher, or to have a harder, faster serve or hit physics must be taking place. I came about these equations that relate to the physics behind this sport: Vf = Vi + at V^2 = Vi^2 = 2ad Finding the acceleration of a volleyball player would allow us to find out the speed of a player whose velocity is increasing or decreasing within a certain amount of time. As well as the player, the ball also has an acceleration. During a serve it is very likely that the ball has a constant acceleration. Throughout the distance of the ball being served, the velocity is constantly increasing thus the velocity is increasing at the same amount for these time intervals. Hitting is not all about contact and force. It also has a lot to do with timing. After the ball is set your brain is assessing the speed and placement of the set thus creating a time frame for your approach. With seeing the distance needed to travel and the velocity at which the ball is traveling, we can calculate the time needed to make this approach. This is found through the equation: V= d/t After doing this research I have concluded the many possibilities that are related between volleyball and physics. We can assess the acceleration of a ball or the timing of a player all through physics!
  47. 1 point
    Have you ever wondered what other animals see when they can see more electromagnetic waves than we can see? Well I started with this question and found that a common electromagnetic wave that other animals can see is infrared waves. There are three different types of Infrared waves, near, mid and far. In the following You Tube video Imre describes how you can take pictures of near Infrared waves using your camera. Even though it wasn't exactly what I was looking for the pictures give you an idea of what an animal might see and since my brothers are both photographers it reminded me of them. One of the facts that I found fascinating about Infrared Waves was that the far Infrared waves actually represent thermal waves which represent heat. Thermal Heat can be felt as heat from the sun and also can be found in fast food restaurants. Far infrared waves are closest to microwave waves which can explain why they can be felt as heat. Snakes would then use far infrared waves to see since they detect what is around them by the heat sensing organs in their face. Vampire bats can also use infrared waves to sense their warm blooded prey. Bugs use their antennas to detect infrared rays one reason is to detect prey. Beetles on the other hand detect infrared waves in order to find forest fires. After finding a forest fire they lay their eggs in the burnt wood. A different example is why NASA uses infrared waves to take pictures of objects in space. They take pictures of Earth in Infrared to help people study the clouds. For example they can see different layers of clouds with different temperatures. On NASA's website you can see a picture of Earth with darker warmer colored clouds closer to the Ocean and whiter clouds inland and close to the arctic. The colors you see with visible light also are made up infrared light as well. In one of their pictures you see a tree and waves reflecting off the grass one wave is visible light, which is why we can see that the grass is green, and the other is infrared light. When you take a picture of the grass and the trees with an infrared camera or camera lens, you see that the grass is mainly red which means it is either reflecting or giving off the infrared waves hitting it. This would explain why in the video they get better pictures when it's a bright sunny day because with more of the sun's rays exposed to the Earth there is a better chance that the Infrared waves will hit the plants, and reflect off different surfaces. Also some of the infrared waves will make the objects hotter that it is reflecting against also helping the camera to detect the infrared waves. Links to websites used: http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/infrared.html http://www.mapoflife.org/topics/topic_311_Infrared-detection-in-animals/
  48. 1 point
    yesterday i opened the window in my room because it was particularly warm outside, and throughout the day as i entered and left my room, i would accidently slam my door, even though i was accelerating it to the same speed to close it as i usually do. as i got used to my now much easier to close door, i thought about possible explainations for this annoying phenomenon. i hypothesized that the culprit was my open window. i figured that when the window was closed, the shutting of my door was harder because while shutting, i was doing work not only on the door, but also on the gasses inside my room because the door acted like a plunger, increasing the volume of my room faster than air could enter and decreasing the pressure inside. with my window open, gas can come in both through the window and through the crack under the door, increasing the speed at which air could enter, therefore decreasing the difference between the rate of incoming air and the rate of increasing volume. with this difference smaller, the door does less work on the air inside because it doesnt need to decrease the pressure to close. with the window closed, i was used to giving more speed to the door to close it, but now that the window is open and less of the energy i give the door is used to change pressure, the speed i usually use is too much, and the door slams.
  49. 1 point
    one very dull free period today i was wondering if Mr. Fullerton had not gone into physics, what would be his profession? i found prison-hardened hardcore gangster rap artist to be the most probable of options.
  50. 1 point
    This being my first blog post, i feel obligated to comply with the requests of Mr. Fullerton, and share with my loyal readers some things about myself and my outlook toward physics c. To describe my background, i would say that i have a wide range of interests, a large portion of which are science related, including microelectronics, circuitry, optics, botany, and laser physics, and a small amount of computer sciences, though i am not very good at it. the main reason i am taking physics c is because my brother tells me calculus is helpful for things, and simply because i am fond of the subject. last year, Mr. Powlin told us that c is more focused on electricity and magnetism than b, which is something i would like to learn more about. the bulk of my anxiety for this class stems from the fact that there is a lot of work to be done, something i am not looking forward to. overall, i think this year will be a valuable experience. thus concludes my first transmission.


  • Newsletter

    Want to keep up to date with all our latest news and information?
    Sign Up

Terms of Use

The pages of APlusPhysics.com, Physics in Action podcasts, and other online media at this site are made available as a service to physics students, instructors, and others. Their use is encouraged and is free of charge. Teachers who wish to use materials either in a classroom demonstration format or as part of an interactive activity/lesson are granted permission (and encouraged) to do so. Linking to information on this site is allowed and encouraged, but content from APlusPhysics may not be made available elsewhere on the Internet without the author's written permission.

Copyright Notice

APlusPhysics.com, Silly Beagle Productions and Physics In Action materials are copyright protected and the author restricts their use to online usage through a live internet connection. Any downloading of files to other storage devices (hard drives, web servers, school servers, CDs, etc.) with the exception of Physics In Action podcast episodes is prohibited. The use of images, text and animations in other projects (including non-profit endeavors) is also prohibited. Requests for permission to use such material on other projects may be submitted in writing to info@aplusphysics.com. Licensing of the content of APlusPhysics.com for other uses may be considered in the future.

×
×
  • Create New...