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  1. Guest
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    I was doing a little research this past weekend on Richard Feynman and came across a speech that he gave at a meeting of the American Physical Society in December of 1959. Of course, Feynman did many great things but I want to focus solely on this speech which basically foreshadows the amazing things that we would be able to do with nanotechnology. You can read a copy of the speech here, http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html , but I thought I would point points that were most memorable to me. Feynman discussed the concept of writing 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia of Brittanica on the head of the pin. He announced that it would be possible if it is demagnified by 25,000 times and each dot is readjusted by photoengraving. In order to read this small print, we would have to make a mold of the lettering and evaporate gold at an angle so that the little letters will appear clearly in a silica film under an electron microscope. If all 24 million books throughout the world were placed onto pinheads, they would use up the area of about a million pinheads. I thought it was very interesting that although we wouldnt be able to read off the head of a pin, we could send books with little effort to devastated countries and underdeveloped nations. It is incredible to think that over 50 years ago, someone thought of this and to compare this idea with the progresswe have made through the years in nanotechnology.

    A very promising lead that emerged from Richard Feynman’s speech was the ability to write on a small- scale. In 1990, the image of atomic manipulation caused quite an uproar. In 1981, scientists developed the scanning tunnelingmicroscope to assist them in seeing single atoms clearly.(Keiper) The image, spelling out “IBM” in just 35 atoms, was created out of xenon atoms and was just the beginning of new advances. By picking up and placing atoms in a desired location, scientists broke through to another new level. Feynman’s speech predicted that this would be possible, as he couldn’t see why it wouldn’t work. Feynman was definitely before his time with many of the topics addressed in his speech but for this particular one, it may have been just what the world needed to get off on the right foot in research and development.

    Sorry that's so long and boring; I found it interesting :)


  2. heather_heupel
    Latest Entry

    Ever since I had an MRI on my knee (worst experience ever) I wanted to discover what was really going on. Sitting still for 32 minutes really makes you start to think about everything. I wondered what the machine was really doing. I had to take off all of my jewelry, or clothes that may have metal on them and until 9 minutes into it did I realize I left my ring on. I only noticed because it was vibrating and made my hand feel weird. I pulled the emergency cord and told them what was wrong and they allowed me to keep it on because that part of my body was not in the tube.

    I found a really good video that started off by explaining the waves, amplitude, frequency, phase, etc. The concepts are kind of hard so I had to keep re-watching parts of the video. I also still need a lot of explanation. What I did pick up was this is one of the times electrons aren't as important as the Nucleus. Using the technology and creating the clear pictures, tumor tissues could be differed from normal tissues. It became the quickest (although not very quick if you're actually in one) screening tool to detect these defaults in the human body. To make an MRI picture, they use 3D space to focus the image of the ligaments.

    This was a very hard topic to research especially since it is only my first year of physics but Mr. Fullerton I'm sure could easily understand it;

  3. When I was playing the trumpet the other day in band, I realized that I was using physics. As I blow into the trumpet it creates vibrations that move through the air ways of the instrument. The waves come out through the other end of the trumpet and generate a sound. if I apply more force when I create the vibrations then I would be increasing the amplitude. If I press down certain keys then I can change the path that the air waves take and change the pitch of the wave which would change the frequency.

  4. pugly100
    Latest Entry

    When saving someones life using an AED is a good idea but only if you do it right. You put the pads on the upper right and lower left. You do this because the shock wants to go the ground. The shock comes out of both pads and wants to travel to the other pad. The heart can only take so much current before it shorts out and cannot be revived. The current that passes through the heart of an AED is just enough to get anyones heart going as long as you get there in time. After the shock is administered then the AED monitors the body to see if there are any vibrations and to check the frequency of the waves to see if they are in rhythm, it they are you saved there life, if not do it again.

  5. Waves they're everywhere. They're apart of our daily lives. We experience waves 24/7 whether its from sound waves, light waves, etc.! In this blog post I'm going to be discussing several examples of waves in our daily life.

    Light waves- The sun is the main source of light waves on earth and require no medium to get to us.

    Sound Waves- These waves require a medium to get to us.

    For example if you put a bell in a vacuum sealed, air tight case and hit it then you wouldn't be able to hear the bell but you could still see it. This is because light waves don't need a medium but sound waves do.

    This sums up a short summary on waves thanks for reading.

  6. We all listen to music daily and share a large appreciation for it however we don't necessarily stop to think about how music travels in sound waves or how they work. We all know that waves transfer energy but sound waves are considered mechanical waves because they require a medium in which they travel through which could be any substance or material that carries the wave along from one location to another and in this case, air would be the medium for sound waves. They travel through the air and our ears pick up the energy from these waves which vibrates against our eardrum and is converted to a nerve impulse which sends that signal to our brain. Sound waves are also considered longitudinal because the wave compression move left or right and the vibrating air particles as well move parallel to the direction the sound wave is travelling. Most of us listen to our music extremely loudly with our headphones blaring, and that means that the sound waves travelling have a high amplitude while when we listen to music as we're trying to fall asleep, its at a much lower volume to form a tranquil setting and those waves have a low amplitude, producing sound at a quieter volume. Also when listening to songs we notice that some singers have higher pitched tones than others and some lower. Having a high pitch indicates a higher frequency of a wave and those singing with a lower pitch indicate a lower frequency of a sound wave.

  7. So I'm actually in my honors chemistry class right now, but who cares right? It's not like it's physics... anyways, good to be back!

    Yesterday, in my differential equations class, we started section 2.3-- I don't actually remember the title-- at the ungodly early hour of 9 AM. aka, really not that early. Now, if I/ other AP C past/current students remember correctly, early in the year we discussed air resistance on a falling object. According to Newton's 2nd Law, net force or ma equals whatever you determine to be the net force. In this case, using a force diagram, you have the force of mg down minus the effect of air resistance (I'll use kv in this case because we used it in my math class, though last year we used bv and cv^2 I believe). Thus you have ma=mg-kv, and since a=dv/dt, you have m(dv/dt)=mg-kv . This is (wait for it) a differential equation! Yay!

    Specifically, it is a linear differential equation, more commonly seen in the form dv/dt+ (something)*v=something. So when Mr. F just skipped over the steps/integration/nothing made sense, that's why. It was a DE.

    Note: I don't fully remember how we did the problem, but I think we were just told what the equation came out to, and skipped the actual steps.

    Anyways, you put it into the form dv/dt+(k/m)*v=g (the dv/dt can't have a coefficient), and then you do a bunch of really really really cool steps to solve it. You take the stuff in front of the v (in this case, k/m) and set up this: e^(integral of k/m dt). Clearly, this gives you e^(kt/m). You then multiply everything in the equation by this, giving you (e^kt/m)*(dv/dt+ (k/m)*v) = g*(e^(kt/m)). The left side of the equation turns into d/dt of e^(kt/m) times v. We don't actually do anything to get to this, it's just known that that's what it turns into, and you can check it to make sure.

    You know have d/dt of e^(kt/m)*v = g*e^(kt/m). you integrate both sides with respect to t, leaving you with:

    e^(kt/m)*v=e^(kt/m)*gm/k + Constant ©. Then just isolate velocity.

    That gives you v(t) equals gm/k+ C*e^(-kt/m), and you can solve for C pretty easily (either with v(0)=v(subscript)0 or v(0)=0. And that's your air resistance equation! (hopefully)

    I'm assuming I messed up a negative sign somewhere, or it should be -gm/k, or something else, but that's the general shape of a) a Linear DE and B) this force equation. Hopefully it's mostly right, and not overly boring because it's actually kinda cool. So yeah... go physics!

    Probably the longest blog post I've done, but I deemed in necessary. Sincerely, your resident Swagmeister

    #APC Rules

  8. I am hard at studying and then my brain starts to wander and before I know it I am on YouTube; the site that can cause any determined student to suddenly lose all concentration. And then somehow through the incredible maze of related videos I find myself at a video showing how to win a pinewood derby race with science. Little did I know that it would serve as review with plentiful information on the conservation of energy and also how both Potential and Kinetic energy affect the car. The video goes to show how potential energy, which is dependent mostly of height, is transferred into kinetic energy as it travels down the track and gains speed. It also shows how some of the potential energy is transferred into heat energy through friction. It then explains how to make the fastest car you want to start with the most potential energy and get the most of that energy transferred into kinetic energy, which is dependent mostly on velocity. To maximize potential energy the weight is placed toward the top of the car. To reduce the amount of energy lost the car rides on three wheels instead of four.

  9. The first law of Thermodynamics holds that in any situation the total amount of energy with in is equal to the total amount of energy out. This also means that you can't create energy or destroy it. So well what happened to all the energy we have put in our bodies? The long story short, most of the energy is stored in your body, and on average a human carries around 7*10^18 joules of energy on average. If all that energy were to release all at once, it would have the same effect as setting OFF 30 HYDROGEN BONDS AT THE SAME TIME!!!!!

  10. This Thursday, the Irondequoit High School Philharmonic Orchestra and Choirs will be performing their major works concert at the St. Mary's Church, right next to the Geva theater. It's quite the interesting concert to perform, in that we're all playing in an unfamiliar venue, and have had only a single day where we ALL got together to practice. Oh, and it doesn't help that the acoustics in the church are terrible, arguably only a little better than the IHS gymnasium.

    Why are they terrible, you ask? Let me tell you. In a real theater or concert hall, the entire venue is designed with the acoustics in mind. For simplicity's sake, imagine sound waves as transverse instead of longitudinal. As Physics 1 taught us, if there's more than one source of sound, the sound will be amplified where peak meets peak and trough meets trough, and nullified where trough meets peak. Because the architects who designed the building know, in general, where the performers will be, they'll have a good idea of where the sound will be loudest (likes meet), and quietest (opposites meet), and will thus place the aisles at quiet points and the seats in louder areas, to maximize the enjoy-ability of the performance. Churches, however, (like St. Mary's) are not designed with acoustics in mind. Churches are designed for masses in which they generally have only a single person speaking, meaning that even if sound reflects off the walls, there's generally going to be a pretty similar listening experience everywhere. As such, the seats are organized in straight rows which are evenly spaced, meaning that when the orchestra starts playing, there's going to be some odd spots in which the sound dwindles more. Add to that the cramped feel of squeezing an ~20 person orchestra and ~50 person choir onto and in front of an altar, and it makes for a really interesting performance.

  11. It is quite interesting how physics can be found in such random parts of your daily life. One such example of this is sleeping. When a person sleeps, they are exerting a force on the bed that they are sleeping on. According to Newton's Third Law, the bed then exerts that same force back on to the person sleeping. In addition to this, gravity holds the person down to the bed, keeping them grounded. When I need to wake up in the morning, I set an alarm on my phone and put my ringer on high. This way, the high frequency pierces through my sleep, and wakes me up. I have never realized just how much physics is in such a simple act!

  12. mandy
    Latest Entry

    Today in our lab we had a cylinder of water and some tuning forks and my group figured out a cool thing. When we struck the tuning forks and placed them in the water, the water splashed and made some waves. The tuning forks with lower frequencies didn't make those waves because they didn't have enough amplitude to move the water. The thicker and longer the tuning fork was the bigger the waves. The water splashed onto the cylinder of water and was quite amusing to me and my other group members. The sound waves from the tuning fork made a vibration and amused us by the splashing water. Although the lab was fun, that part was even more fun.

    Another thing that happened today that created waves was when I hit the rubber stopper against the plastic tube. The sound varied with the material I used to hit the tube. When I hit it with the rubber stopper, the noise was quieter compared to when I hit it with the wooden part of the pencil. The different frequencies changed the sound that we heard when I hit the tube.

  13. Darts

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    Dart throwing uses physics to get the dart to the bullseye and get the highest score possible or if you are playing different dart related games to get the numbers that you need. Throwing darts uses different parts of physics to have the dart hit the target in the area that you want it to. Projectiles and energy to have the dart move through the air and to the target.


    The darts are a projectile because they are thrown at an angle and you need to find the best angle with the correct initial velocity to get the dart to the board. The angle at which the dart leaves your hand is usually less than 45 degrees so that the dart goes toward the board and not at the ceiling. Even though the optimal angle for most anything else is 45 you need to change the angle and the initial velocity to get the bullseye. the gravity brings down the dart and this is why you need to aim 'higher' than the bullseye.


    Also you use work because you move your arm which is the displacement and you force the dart to move forward toward the board. Darts use work to make their way to the target because they have to move and the force exerted by the person is on the dart. The darts use the work to make it to their destination. This shows that darts uses physics, by using different equations you can find out everything you need to know.

  14. Everyone knows the blue, padded gym walls. If someone was to offer you 10 dollars to punch one as hard as you could, there are at least 5 of you out there who would take it. Well, had i known the physics of a punch, I wouldn't have ended up with a broken pinky. If you're going to punch a blue wall in the gym, keep this in mind. The longer the punch connects with the wall, the smaller the force was. This makes sense logically,, if i hit something hard my hand will bounce back from the collision. If I just Touch it, the collision is a lot less forceful and far less damaging.

    Airbags rely on this fact as well. Newton's first law accounts for inertia, and in a car accident, inertia might throw you through a windshield. Airbags deploy and you fall into them, keeping contact for much longer than you would have if you smashed into the steering wheel. This weakens the blow, and therefore the damage that the force will have

  15. rrand14
    Latest Entry

    Well, this has been one year that I will never forget.

    At first i was really nervous to start physics, not knowing what to expect, if i could handle it or if it would just go over my head.

    Im not a huge math person but i have always enjoyed science and having a better understanding of the world around us. Luckily, this class became the perfect fit for me.

    Regents Physics quickly opened my eyes to a new world where EVERYTHING has an explanation and most things you cant understand on the first try.

    This class has taught me skills i can use in the future, from taking responsibility for my work, working in a group, studying and asking questions to better my understanding.

    Mr. Fullerton has been so incredibly helpful the whole year. I never felt uneasy having to ask lots of questions. He treated me as an adult and allowed me to learn my own lessons. He shaped me into a person that i am happy to be. After i studied really hard for the midterm and still felt discouraged about my performance, Mr. Fullerton gave me a call to tell me that i passed and how proud he was of me. It really brought up my confidence in this class and excited me for the second half of the year. His constant support and motivation are super helpful in a class like this. Also, his access to review tools and organization allow anyone to understand. Plus his books are awesome!

    My favorite project of the year was the Ipod Speakers. This is mainly because i learned so much about how sound waves work and it challenged me to push myself and not give up if i didnt understand right away.

    I am also glad that my eyes were open to the origins of the universe in video format, its quite entertaining.

    I am so glad that i had the confidence to make it through the year, to meet new people and to discover a new understanding of myself. Thank you for the lessons and for the memories. Good luck on finals!

    :ass: (Sorry Mr. Fullerton, i had to.)

  16. Everyone knows what a sword is, whether it be a katana, claymore, or even the famed Excalibur of Arthurian tales. Sure when you swing a sword it cuts, but what about the sound it makes? This came to mind as I thought of one of my favorite movies, The Last Samurai. At first I related it to the sounds produced by whips or arrows, but I wanted to look into the matter to find out what is really behind the cause of a sword's sound.

    To go with the theme from The Last Samurai, I researched a lot about the ideas the Japanese associate with their swords. in Japan in order to have a proper sound, or hasuji, the blade must create the proper sword wind, or tachikaze. When a sword slices through the air, it must push away air molecules and creates what is called a thickness noise. This works in conjunction with loading noise, which is the blade having a direct effect on the air, generating forces to move it about. Since the blade of a katana is tapered, this allows it to cut the air more aerodynamically, and forms a vortex of air behind it, What you hear is the tone of the blade cutting through and pushing molecules out of the way, much like an arrow piercing the air as it flies by.

  17. KalB
    Latest Entry

    Friday April 10th might as well have been Friday the 13th!!! Due to the very strong wind, the traffic lights on Cooper and Titus were knocked out. Unfortunately, several businesses around that area also felt the wrath of Mother Nature, suffering from power outages themselves. I work at Cam's Pizzeria as I have mentioned in my previous blog posts, and my place of work suffered from the power outage but heres the catch... only in half of our store. What does this have to do with physics you say? Well the part of our store that of course had the oven on it did not receive power. The fryers worked and of course the sub bench but nothing involving pizza. A few lights worked and a few switches didn't. Why is that?? I think it has to do with the electrical circuits. The lights that were still on probably operated by parallel circuits so they had more than one path to travel as a back up. The ones that were out immediately, like the oven, were probably powered by series circuits, and only had one path to go through, shutting the light source off completely. Eventually, (8 hours later), the power was back on. After dealing with rude customers who were not understand and turning away about 5 French foreign exchange students, everything was back to normal and we could serve pizza again. (:

  18. crazycrochet20
    Latest Entry

    At the end of last quarter, I wrote a blog post about how I needed to change a few things because of the disaster that had come about in all my classes but especially physics. I feel that over the course of the past 10 weeks, I have changed the way that I learn and study. I find that I am more focused to get things done and understand them in a timely manner. I use all of the time given to me efficiently as well. Before this quarter, I found myself wasting class time and not doing the work that I needed to do in order to understand the content.

    Now that the learning is almost done for most classes and we move into the studying for exams during the last quarter, I need to remember the success that I have had during this quarter and continue it on. I know I can do it. We are now in the final stretch of high school and I am ready for it all. 

    Until next time,


  19. It's like 10:30 at night and I am so tired and don't want to do this. But since I only have one left (I think) and it's very trivial if I want to pass, I will do it. The only problem is, I don't know what to write about. I could write about how we were wearing power rangers t-shirts. You wore one but so did I, a different color. And so was Moey, and his brother. I have already talked about everything that I do. All I ever do is play hockey and video games because I'm lame, so lets see what else there is.

    Let's talk about circular motion. I have this friend of mine who can be a really good driver sometimes, but when he gets too energetic, can be very wreckless. He likes to drift in parking lots with FEMALES in the car and putting their lives in danger. When drifting your car can hydroplane or just lose traction on your back tires, and then you begin to spin. When I last drifted (yes, it has happened multiple times. Sometimes on purpose some) we flew around a pole in a parking lot in a circular motion. Since we were spinning in a circle, the centripetal force will always be pointing to the center or in this case the pole. Also if we were to lose traction of the front tires too, our velocity would continue tangent to the circle. So if your friend ever decides to drift, or you egg him on by saying things like "you won't push 80 on this main road", just know that your velocity will go tangent to the circle.

    That's all I got for y'all now I'll be back next quarter to do 5 in one sitting, last minute. Goodbye

  20. ErikaRussell
    Latest Entry

    Finally the weather begins to warm up which mean it's time for flip flops! As I walked through the commons the other day wearing my flip flops, I noticed how slippery the tile floor was... luckily I did not fall! Then I thought about wearing flip flops in the winter and how often I would fall due to the slippery ice, not to mention my feet would be very cold. I came to understand just how important friction is in the winter because, without it, we would be sliding and falling all over the place. The soles of winter shoes, for example, tend to be very grippy and have lots of ridges in them. These ridges provide the shoes with a less likely chance to fall over on the ice because they create more friction. Also, there are snow tires many people buy for their cars during the winter because the roads get very icy and these tires provide more friction between the car wheels and the ices, which will prevent the car from potentially getting into an accident. Good thing car tires manufacturers as well as shoe companies took into consideration all the physics that goes into creating more friction because otherwise people would be falling and getting into car accidents more frequently. And on the bright side, we don't need to worry about this for a while since spring has finally arrived!

  21. marisam96
    Latest Entry
    blog-0357398001390792288.jpgThis blog post is going to be slightly different than other posts. Most have to do with activities that people do but for this blog post, I wanted to connect physics not with an activity that I, or someone I know, do but with a class I take. More likely than I would like to admit, taking physics has allowed me to better understand my AP calc class. We frequently do problems that have to do with finding the speed/velocity of an object, then the acceleration, or the derivative of the speed/velocity, However, occasionally in calculus, we are giving the problem, but not an equation to plug the problem into. Thanks to physics, I have been able to know how to tackle a calc problem because of what I have learned in physics. I know that a=v/t and v=d/t and typically, enough of those values are given to me so that I can finish the problem. Also, we have learned about Newton's method in calc, which was just crazy weird because as we were discuss Newton's laws in physics, the same guy's method popped up the class right before. So while most people can find the physics in their sport of choosing, I can say that I have seen physics reappear in my Calculus homework.
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    Hi I'm Lucy and I keep track of the amount of treats I eat with my Ti calculator


  22. Physics is used in many movies! Movies are something that I constantly watch in my life. A movie that is one of my favorites is Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory! Physics is constantly used in this movie when Augustus the fat German kid starts to drink the chocolate fountain and then gets sucked in the chocolate machine. If you watch the rest of the video you can see the physics in the movie!

  23. Most people know that the compass is used to navigate yourself around. However most don't know how it works. A compass is a magnet that is free to line up with magnetic field lines. The earth is basically a giant magnet with a north and south pole. However, the north pole of a compass is attracted to the geographic north pole of the earth.. therefore the geographic north pole of the earth is a magnetic south pole. The compass is able to navigate you around earth when you are lost because of magnetic field lines which run from north to south outside of the magnet. A north point of a compass will point towards wherever the magnetic field lines point. A compass is a good thing to bring with you when you travel or hike because it doesn't require electricity and the poles on earth will most likely never change, making the compass a consistent tool to have for an emergency. A compass is polarized which means it has two distinct and opposite ends. Regardless of where you are on earth, if you have a compass you can use magnetism to help you find your way back home!

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