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  1. nataliebecoats3
    Latest Entry

    In July, I will be taking a vacation to the beautiful island of Turks and Caicos as a gradation present. At the resort, there are many excursions to choose from. However, the coolest one that I saw was a paddle boarding adventure through a cove with iguanas. Though paddle boarding may look easy, I imagine that there is a lot of physics involved and that it it a lot harder. The rider has to apply enough work and force to the paddle in order to propel the board forward. This can prove to be a struggle if you don't have enough force to propel yourself through the different currents.

  2. BrandyBoy72
    Latest Entry

    This is an example of how magnets can be used for levitation, or hovering if you will. All this is, is simply the force of the magnet overcoming the force of gravity of the magnet and the liquid. In this way, a "hover board" would be nothing other than a force keeping something off the ground, which is just what a normal force is when you have an object sitting on the floor. However, using magnets for levitation is cool because you cannot see the force acting on the object, and the force can also be transferred through things, putting your hand between something being levitated by a magnet would not stop the magnetic repulsion, which is pretty cool to think about and even cooler to see.

  3. Celeena
    Latest Entry

    Most horses have four gaits that they commonly use. The first, the walk, is a slow, tame, four beat gait. The trot, slightly faster, is a two beat gait. The canter, a three beat gait, has a rocking feel to it. Last but not least is the gallop, which is a fast four beat gait, averaging about 25 mph.

    The most comfortable gait for a horse to jump from is the canter. This is a consistent gait that allows the horse enough momentum as well as an even pacing so that an adequate amount of force can be used during the takeoff.

    My trainer has told me that there are five components to a jump, all important in making sure that you complete it safely and well, gracefully.

    The first is the approach. Approaching the jump means that you must prepare at the correct angle, make sure you have enough room to count out the proper stride length, and give yourself time to think about whether you need the horse to go a little faster (a small nudge with your calves), or slower (a half-halt, pulling slightly with both reins and then releasing), in order to glide into phase two safely.

    Phase two is the actual jump itself. When jumping, the horse exerts a force on the ground in order to push itself upwards. This can be represented by Newton's second law or F=ma. Horses can carry up to 30% of their body weight. While this is impressive, it is also a limit. When the horse exerts all of that force on the ground, the ground exerts the same force back. This can seriously damage their back legs if the rider is not careful.

    Phase three of the jump is the air time. While the horse is in the air, it is the rider's job to not only sit up, releasing the pressure on their back, but make sure that their landing will be comfortable and set them up correctly to continue the course. During their time in the air, the horse has only potential energy, compared to it's kinetic energy during the approach. At the horse's maximum height, the velocity is zero, meaning the only force acting upon horse and rider is gravity: 9.81 m/s^2.

    Phase four is probably the most dangerous phase of the jump, not only because there is a large force between the horse's front legs and the ground, but also due to the fact that all of the rider's weight is put onto the horse's front legs as well, causing a large strain. Again, if the rider does not properly care for the horse, all of this weight and force could potentially damage it's legs.

    Phase five, or finale, is after the jump is completed. The velocity of the horse should return to that of the velocity during the approach, meaning the sum of the forces during the entire jump should be equal to zero. The rider should check to make sure the horse is on the correct lead, and proceed to evaluate their next jump, repeating step 1.

  4. This year, I really pushed myself with new challenges that were difficult, but also very rewarding. I took on the challenge of a flipped classroom and learned a new way to be a student that will help prepare me for college. While at times it was a struggle to keep up, this course kept helped me prepare for college by forcing me to work on my time management skills. I think that I have a lot more of improvement to do on this, but I have come a long way from the beginning of the year. I think before I go to college, it might be a good idea to review Dr. Chew's videos and brush up on some of the proper learning techniques that he taught. Another new thing that I took on this year was completing blog posts for this class. This activity taught me a lot of new things about how what we are learning in physics applies to the real world and I really appreciate all that I have learned. Going forward, I will have to apply the math and physics of the classroom to the real world, and doing the blog posts gave me a little bit of insight into the connections between the two. Although it may have been a challenge at times to complete the necessary blog post on time, I enjoyed learning new things about the world around me. 

  5. Alex Wilson
    Latest Entry

    Lately in the video game world there has been a lot of purposefully bad simulator games: Surgeon Simulator and Rock Simulator to name a couple. Now, there is a sim game called I AM BREAD. In the game you play as, well, bread. Duh. The purpose of every level is to become toast and stay edible. The best part of the game is that it has really wonky controls. Also, the physics make little sense. The bread you play as has grip and can climb walls. It also seems to be a rather heavy mass since it can break bottles and push bowling balls around. The series Teens React has a video with it:

    My favorite part is that they all ask "Wait, so I'm the bread?"

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    emvan2
    Latest Entry

    Like a sound wave, the waves produced by drums are longitudinal. The vibration produced when a drum is hit creates pressure waves in the air. These pressure waves describe the sound. The more the drum head bends, the volume of sound increases, a higher frequency is created and the amplitude if affected. Pitches of drums range from low frequency basses to high frequency pitches. Like a speaker which amplifies sound through the air, noise from the drums travel to our ears because of the sound vibrations and type of waves. When the vibrating drum vibrates the air molecules around it, it does so at the same frequency to produce a beautiful sound.

  6. tjpapaleo
    Latest Entry

    So, I was watching The Flash awhile ago and they were dealing with particle accelerators. As you know, Flash was created by a particle accelerator explosion that caused him to transform into a man with super speed. I know that doesn't actually but what is in a particle accelerator? What is a particle accelerator? A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to shoot charged particles to almost the speed of light, while containing them in beams. Particle accelerators have made big discovers, especially in medicine. They have been used for finding x-rays as well as the discover of a neutron. As of today, there are 10,000 scientists using particle accelerators for x-rays for research in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. Basically they are used for research purposes. That's all for now on particle accelerators. Tune in next time for more physics. 

  7. I was thinking about going on vacation since it is now summer and that lead me to the question of how to airplanes fly. I have come to find that it is the result of Bernoulli's experiment that resulted in the founding that if air speeds up the pressure is lowered. This explains how the wings are lifted. As the air goes faster over the top of the wing,it creates the region of low pressure.

    After finding out this informetion I came to the question of, why does the air go faster over the top of the wing? I came to the answer that the distance that the air must travel is directly related to it's speed.

    The avergage speeds of the air over the top and under the wing are determined by measuring the distances therefore we can calculate the speed using our formulas. From Bernoulli's experiment it is stated that we can find the pressure forces and therefore the lift.

    A wing generating lift is used through Newton's first and third laws. The first law states that an object in motion tends to stay in motion and object in rest tends to stay in rest unless a force is acted upon it. His third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    Hope you enjoy this post!

  8. Speakers contain an electromagnet which is a coil of wire that the current flows through. First, it starts with a battery and then moves into the coil of wire. When the magnet vibrates the air molecules start moving and create waves. The waves then produce the sound that you can hear. Also there is energy transfer in a speaker. For example, the phone has electric and chemical potential energy because its a chemical reaction that causes the electricity to flow. Chemical turns into electrical and then flows through the wire. When the energy flows through the wire, it moves into a coil of wire which has a changing magnetic field because the song changes the frequency of the wire. However the magnet has a contestant magnetic field and when its placed against the coil of wires magnetic field, it allows the magnet to vibrate and in the end it makes sound.

  9. There are tons of physics in catching a pass, rather that pass being from the real sports football basketball or maybe a sport like baseball. A lot of the physics actually comes from the pass. For example tracking where the trajectory of the ball is being place along with the force that was put on the ball in order to make it move sense we know if a force wasn’t put on it then it would never be moving in the first place. The acceleration of the ball basically right when it reaches your hand must reach 0m/s2 or the force of the ball will end up having you not showcase your ability to catch the ball. Typically when you are about to catch something you bend your hands in a glove like shape, this is because the greater the area of a place for the ball to land the less the force of the pass.

  10. Electricity and music both are connected not only through electric instruments but through our brain. In the second video it compares the brain to an orchestra and shows how even sitting down relaxed your brain is constantly moving. I also have had EEGs in order to monitor how my brain works during a seizure. Once I got to see a picture of my brain and all the electric currents going to all sorts of areas of my brain. The seizure would start in two different places in my brain then continue seemingly randomly until it ends.

    We don't exactly know what causes my seizures but one problem my family has is that our brains always move to fast for us to do anything with a lot of the ideas we have. The first video on the other hand reminds me of my brother and how he was electrocuted at a young age. I wonder if we had any detectors connected to him how fast the frequencies would be going then. I think my favorite part of the video was when you could hear the sound because it added a whole different dimension to how your body can help transfer different frequencies.

    With all the sound you could hear from his detector it makes you wonder what happens when you are using your cell phone. What frequencies go through your body? Can this really cause cancer? These questions and so much more are constantly being asked like how does are neurons know how to organize themselves in the brain when no one instructs them where to go. The brain is one thing I can't wait for the scientists to understand better so we can understand the miracles that happen inside us everyday.

  11. zlessard
    Latest Entry

    I Googled "how much force is in a single keystroke" and I'm going to trust a source that says 12.9 N. This will help me in my overall (obviously hypothetical) analysis.

    Since this is my final blog post of the year I wanted to sort of wrap it up as well as possible and somehow tie in all of my other blogs. Using an online "character counter", I found out that there are a combined 50,015 characters across my 29 other blog posts, which have an array of topics ranging from pole vaulting to doomsday to Monte Alban. Not accounting for any backspacing, 50,015 is an accurate count of all of the characters I've put into these blogs. Utilizing the accepted force of a keystroke as being 12.9 N, that means I applied an accumulative 645,193.5 N to my keyboard for the purpose of these blogs. That's over 145,000 lbs of force, which seems like far too high of a number but I'm going to accept it regardless for the purpose of making this more interesting. I now wonder what type of things I could accomplish utilizing this much force that does not involve analyzing the physics behind a bladeless fan or a Mexican resturaunt.

    I could:

    Break 230 backboards (see blog no. 29)

    Throw a football very far

    Probably jump pretty high

    Write 28 blog posts and have enough left over force to perfectly emulate the biting force of an adult Great White Shark

    Push the ground really hard and pretend that the dent was caused by 32 1/4 Ford Explorers being stacked on top of each other. 

     

    As you can see, if I could somehow have concentrated all of the force that I put into the creation of these blogs into a single motion, then I could have pulled off some of the most incredible feats in the history of mankind. But alas, the people are left with 30 thoughtful, well crafted and occasionally humorous blog posts that will some day be hanging in a digital art gallery. Oh what could have been...

    :geek:

  12. There is a lot of physics involved in the game of bowling. Potential energy is one component of physics that is involved in bowling. Depending on the height from where the bowler releases the ball, the ball has some potential energy. Bowlers who bowl straight balls have to make sure that the ball stays as close to the lane as possible upon release because, if the bowler bowls a straight ball the potential energy will not affect the game a lot but it will draw attention to the bowler when they drop the ball very high for others to laugh at.

    Bowlers who bowl with a hook ball are more at risk than straight ball bowlers. The more potential energy the ball has upon release, the longer it will bounce as it travels down the lane. This makes the ball less likely to catch friction in the lane.

  13. This year has been amazing for me. I never thought that I would be able to do things such as a drag force derivation, or transient analysis of circuits, but I proved myself wrong. Through hard work and a lot of time, I matured through this year into an independent student who has faith in his own intellectual abilities which can all be attributed to the workload of AP Physics C. I learned that it isn't bad to ask questions as long as you have tried your hardest and thought about it until you cannot anymore. I have also learned to attack problems with other people, and combine knowledge in order to come to a solution which is extremely satisfying in the end. I now feel much more prepared for college and the challenges that I will face there. I have learned that it is OK to fail as long as you have put your best effort forward, because it only means you have room for improvement. Physics C has brought me many emotions both happy and sad, and has pushed my thinking to places It has never been before. I will undoubtedly miss Physics C, but will look back on it as a stepping stone in my path towards higher learning and eventually a career.

  14. Image result for mario kart wii rainbow road gif

    Mario Kart was (and still is) the greatest game of all time, and there is a surprising amount of physics involved – not the part about falling off the edge of rainbow road and then magically reappearing back on the track though.

    Mario Kart uses Newton’s laws. The use of Newton’s first law proves why in order to get moving you have to press a button to accelerate, and when you let your finger off the button, you don’t just automatically stop, you just slow down. Newton’s second law shows how if you use a cart with a greater mass, you need a greater force to get the kart moving with the same acceleration.

    Mario Kart also uses elastic and inelastic collisions. An elastic collision occurs when two karts run into each other. They both don’t stick together following the collision, but they bounce away from each other. An inelastic collision occurs when two karts collide and the one with the thunder colt transfers to the other kart and now the thunder cloud is stuck to the other kart.

    While Mario Kart is mostly fictional – with flying blue shells, mystery boxes, and magically coming back to life after falling off into vast darkness – there is still a lot of subtle physics involved.

  15. Abbeys Blog

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    alf095
    Latest Entry

    Speakers can cost hundreds of dollars to go with an awesome sound system but you can make your own as well. In order to do so you just need to learn the physics behind doing so. First electrical energy from the ipod tranfers and converts into magnetic energy which then converts to sound waves and hit against our ear drums which then converts again so we can understand them. A simple speaker can be made using a business card, wire, aux cord, a bowl and a magnet. Once you set everything up the cup in the bowl creates a louder noise and the cylindrical paper makes the noise clearer. Vibration moves up throufh the cords to the paper dishes and helps create sounds. To make everything sound better its usually better to put it on a very solid object for something to vibrate against. So next time you need a quick fix for a speaker, just use household objects.

  16.  

    The most profound idea that can occur to any mind is that of the cyclic nature of time, fate and regeneration. Even though it is evident in scientific things like the first law of thermodynamics and the ultimate and imminent destiny of a cyclic universe, one needs only recognize that their apparent existence implies the intrinsic possibility that their existence, as it is in that instant, is able to recur again and has occurred infinitely many times before as it does in that moment. The permutations of thermodynamic microstates must eventually repeat themselves, creating identical states or systems. This recurrence and successive permutations also suggest a multiverse-like phenomenon where everything is comically “the same but different” trope to a T. It evokes that bit of wisdom, “The world is indeed comic, but the joke is on mankind” from H.P. Lovecraft, a figure of honor, which is the grand summation of fate and return. Every struggle against the human soul is doomed to repeat for all time, a conclusion so spectacular and significant that I believe it is truly capable of making men thoroughly mad. 

    Personally, I wonder how this wisdom weighs on my humanity. My life and what is essentially myself will recur in an infinite permutation of recursive universes each of an unremitting nightmare-future. I found not many people who understand this or are ready to accept it which makes me feel dry amused at the notion I am profoundly wrong. 
     

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    Physics is in dodgeball no matter what you may think. There is kinematics along with work and energy. This is almost all in the throw of the dodgeball and how you hard and fast you can throw the dodgeball.

    dodgeball-logo-right.png

    The energy is used for the ball through the air. if you throw the ball it has a certain kinetic energy as it flies towards its target. The energy of this is based on how fast you can get the ball with the initial velocity and the kinetic will remain the same if you neglect air resistance. the work is shown through how much you move your arm and how far the ball has to fly. the ball is displaced and the force you throw with is the amount of work the ball made. there is also kinematics because you can use it to determine the distance that the ball will travel after you release it from your hand.

    this all shows that there is more physics in dodgeball than most people realized. the kinematics will show distance and velocity. the work will show how much was done by the person and the ball through the air. and finally there was energy because that there was kinetic and potential along with internal.

  17. The fun 3D game that we all love has 3 basic components that rule over it and make up the PHYSICS OF MINECRAFT. We had talked before about the game during class and after my recent Star Wars post I decided to go in and explore not only a classic but one of our old school favorite games and how the game runs. In order to then satisfy Mr. Fullerton I went through the internet and found all the information I needed to tell you about the Physics behind the game. We can see in the game three basic kinds of physics that are implemented in the everyday game play: the movement of objects (land, weapons), the movement of fluids, and the electrical signals of Redstone which can than create circuits and electrical devices.

    1. Movement of Land, weapons, people, objects....etc

    For this first component you can describe the overall category as the movement of entities. As we search and break down the information we find that entities are labeled to be players, vehicles (boats, minecarts..), dropped items(weapons, food...), projectiles(snowballs, eggs, arrows, fireballs...), and than the classic falling sand and gravel.

    This category describes to us how gravity and other forces move about solid objects within the world. Just by playing the game it is obvious to us that gravity has been implemented within the game and we can see from the falling of leaves, players jumping, the arc on arrows, the dropping of items, the falling of sand/gravel, and from all of this we have a sense of gravity but as this is a classic game we can see some obvious flaws that occur. One such phenomenon that occurs is how blocks can float in space without blocks under them. If you build a block on top of two other blocks, than destroy those two other blocks, that top block will not fall but it will stay as you can see as you cut down trees. If you cut away at a tree from the bottom the entire tree will not fall, but instead it will float in space as you continue to chop away at it. Also only sand and gravel are affected by gravity. We can see that while underground mining for goods that if you hit away at coal or at stone nothing but the minerals will fall down and you can collect them, but if you break some rock and there is sand above the sand will drop like water and smash into you.

    So the properties held by these solid objects which do apply to physical laws, include that all of these objects have a volume. Whether it be a block of leaves, bark, stone, or an arrow or sheep these solid objects have a volume that no other object can than take a hold of. It is shown that most objects are made by 3D blocks and that two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at one time. Also these solid objects have positions, velocities, and rotations. Positions constitute the same principles as these solids having specific volumes and thus specific locations in the world. The moving objects such as people, arrows, sand and gravel follow gravity in their motion. We can see that there is a gravity effect on all of these objects which pulls them to the ground, that from this force there is an arc on an arrow or how you can't jump up and than fly. Also we see how objects in the game stay in motion until opposed. An arrow won't stop moving till it hits the target or the ground, such as a the sand won't stop falling until it hits the solid ground.

    We can see that solid objects can not pass through other solid objects because of the ideas behind volume and position, and also water moves objects around. We can see that any of these solid objects are affected by the flow and current of fluids such as water or lava. In the game when you fall into a river, waterfall, or a flow of lava(on peaceful) you will be pushed along and carried with the stream and current due to the unbalanced force pushing against you. Obviously though we can see some flaws within this though. If you are at the bottom of a waterfall than your character can defy gravity and swim vertically up the waterfall, traveling up steam, against the current, and vertically upward all things which are not only hard but some impossible to do.

    2. Movement of Fluids

    For the most part fluids follow the basic laws of reality but in some circumstances we can see that fluids in the game go against the natural laws we have in place. Fluid like the solid substances is affected by gravity and will flow downstream and pick up velocity the steeper the slope is. It can be walked through and you can occupy the same space as a box of water or lava occupies, and there is a flow and current in the water based on to where the water flow that affects the character and pushes them into a certain direction.

    With water we can also see the flaws. As shown earlier you can swim upstream even when the water is flowing straight down vertically. Also water and lava do not have definite volumes that at some point can max out. Water and lava can continuously grow and expand through empty space to no end. If one block of water is placed than its initial volume can grow continuously, say 19 blocks, that one block of water than has a volume 19x its original and under certain conditions can still grow and expand out word. Unfortunately in the real world this isn't possible at some point water can not grow anymore and its original volume can not just grow and change. Also if there is a waterfall you can use solids to block the water. If you place a rock in a space of water the rock will than take up that volume of space in the game and the water either adapts out word or it just disappears decreasing the volume (which is itself not possible) if you keep doing this process for a waterfall in a cave eventually you can block off all water. If you than though break that last block you placed water will again not flow out but the water has in fact completely disappeared. Instead of condensing the water where the volume would remain constant just stuffed in a smaller space, the volume of that cube of water disappears from the world and when you block all of it off that entire water source is than gone forever.

    3.Redstone

    Redstone is the mineral in the game used to create wires, circuits, and thus power in the world. Through redstone dedicated players (with no lives) can create large complex circuits that can open doors, turn on lights, activate mine carts, even create computers. Through the use of redstone circuits electricity is created in Minecraft and with that the possibilities within the world are expanded. Redstone is a mineral that is unique to the world and it has properties that are thus unique and allows it to create circuits and the flow of electricity which allows you to than do whatever you would like whether it be complex activities or simple lever mechanisms.

    Physics can be found in any game and by diving in and exploring the world of Minecraft we can find the physics which control the world, and also how the world disobeys the concepts of reality as well.

  18. A tool that provides direction by the use of magnetism is based on the basis of physics. This tool, the compass, has been used for many centuries and helped guide history through various explorations. Today, this tool is not used as much as it had been in the past but if you are ever lost it is a great instrument to help you find your way.

    Magnetism is one of the first bits of science students learn about in school and just about the first thing we discover is that like poles repel opposite poles attract. If you hold two bar magnets so their north poles are almost touching, they will push away from one another; if you turn one of the magnets around so one magnet's north pole is near the other magnet's south pole, the magnets will pull toward one another. That's all there is to a compass: the red pointer in a compass - the magnetized needle - is a magnet and it's being attracted by Earth's own magnetism called the geomagnetic field. Earth behaves like a giant bar magnet with one pole up in the Arctic and another pole down in Antarctica. Now if the needle in your compass is pointing north, that means it is being attracted to the Earth's north pole. Since unlike poles attract, the compass is being attracted to must be a magnetic south pole. Furthermore, the thing we call Earth's magnetic north pole is actually the south pole of the magnet inside Earth. Originally this concept was a little challenging to grasp but then I realized all I need to remember is that opposites attract. Earth's magnetic field is actually quite weak compared to forces like gravity and friction. For a compass to be able to show up the relatively small effects of Earth's magnetism, the effects of these other forces must be minimized. That is why compass needles are lightweight and mounted on frictionless bearings.

    Compasses provide direction to our destination which in the end can be more useful than most other instruments we use in our daily lives.

  19. thatnewjunior
    Latest Entry

    On a slightly-longer-than-necessary-immediate-family-only-two-week trip to the Adirondack Mountains over the summer past, I learned how to waterski on one ski. Once up on two skis, the forward velocity of the boat makes the water 'act' as it would if you had fallen on it from a very high position: it 'hardens' beneath you, making it possible for you to basically stand on your skis, on the water. Once you get going and find yourself advancing in a relatively straight line, you slowly add pressure to one foot, and begin to slide your other ski off by lifting your heel. More often than not, you will fall once your weight leaves the ski you are trying to get rid of. But eventually I succeeded in keeping upright after dropping a ski! Next summer's task: getting up on only one ski to begin with!

  20. as some of you know I work at 2 ton ton'y where we have real good pizza. And the other day I had to walk to work in the rain. And so I was walking up Hudson and crossing th cross walk in front of wegmans, you know the big long one at the main entrance. as I was walking along I looked over my shoulder and noticed a car was waiting to pull into wegamans, and I didn't want to hold that nice man up I did like a half jog to get out of his way. I continued my walk to work as usual and right before I was about to enter my work place I checked my pockets to see if I had everything, and my phone WAS NOT in my pockets. so I sprinted back as fast as I could to that cross walk because I knew it had to be there. As I approached the beginning of the cross walk I could see my phone face down in road. But then the worst thing happened, I watch a ford f-150 run over my phone. I walked slowly toward my phone as if I were in a dramatic sappy movie picked up my phone and observed my screen. nearly completely shattered with no hope of working again. But then as im holding my phone in despair I get a text and my screen lights up. and so my still works but moral of the story is pedestrians have the right away and take your time on those cross walks.

  21. There are many different types of waves. Mechanical Waves, Sound Waves, Electromagnetic Waves and even waves people get in their hair. Today I am here to discuss the term wavy in context of style and fashion. Coming from Urban Dictionary wavy can be defined as the new futuristic way of describing something in a positive connotation, popularized by rapper Max B. Another definition for wavy is the highest level of smooth/cool/swagger. For those who don't already I know I am known around I-town as the "wavy boy". I brought this name to myself because I feel that I am "wavy". I take pride in the way I dress and I like passion. I could go on and on about the term "wavy" but I am going to end it here. Thank you for time and stay tuned for more!

    @Wavy_boyDJ

    Follow me on Twitter and Instagram

  22. I saw this on myth busters, and I decided, even though they said it was not possible, I can still try, or dream of trying at least. It is possible to dodge the bullet of a sniper rifle. If the sniper rifle were far enough, that is.

    When the sniper rifle shoots the bullet, 3 components travel towards the target. Light waves, sound waves and a bullet. Light is faster then the bullet and the sound. Having said that, if the sniper was far enough to have a reasonable amount of time between the muzzle flash and the sound getting to you, it is possible to get out of the way. As soon as someone sees the muzzle flash, they could get out of the way, before the sound and bullet get there.

    Having said that, DO NOT TRY THAT. it's not possible. I just needed a good story that people would read. It's possible in theory, but never a good idea by any stretch.

  23. Or more like shape OF the universe! The only book I read anymore is The Cosmic Cocktail by Katherine Freeze, and one topic she came upon was the shape of the universe.

    This topic is a very hard one to think of in your head, because its hard to imagine a universe in which we live in expanding! Yet as I showed in another blog post, Hubble himself showed that it must be expanding since galaxies are growing farther away from us!

    So then what just shape are we expanding from?? Or Into??? Well there are three options we have. If the density of the universe is less than the critical mass density (found in proportion to the square of Hubble's constant then we are left with a negatively curved geometry, like a saddle. If it matches the mass found from Hubble's constant than we are left with a flat geometry like a piece of paper. But if the density is greater than the one we expect, we are left with a spherical geometry.

    Flat geometry is the one Einstein preferred because is it easiest to work with a flat axis instead of a curved one. The effects of these different geometries are interesting though. For example, if the universe was spherical than there would not be enough mass (and density) so after expanding a "Big Crunch" will occur after the Big Bang and the universe will collapse on itself. The other two options are not AS sad though. The flat and hyperboloid geometries on the other hand will continue to expand forever! This will lead to a big chill since the universe will be so expansive and will never stop. I did say as.

    The obvious evidence points to flat, the simple answer. It has good evidence behind it though, if the universe was spherical the "Big Crunch" would have happened extremely soon after and there would not have been enough time for the galaxies and such to form! Also a hyperboloid geometry would have led to a much faster expansion than seen a the "Big Chill" would have lead to the same result.

    The numerical evidence behind flat geometry is iffy at best though, and is also very complicated, so stay tuned for next time when you can decide for yourself if our universe is like a pancake or a basketball!

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